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Indian Philosophy. 


P. X. ^iNivASA Iyengar. 

• • 

- :•-.-- -- 

Thbos#fhical Publishing Sociktv. 
Thkosophist Officb Adyar. 




Chaptsb I. 


Tbere is a oyde of ideas oommon to all Bcbooli 

of philosophy in India ••• ••• 1 

Philosophy in India means the regulation of 

iiie ••• ••• ••• ••• V 

All Hindn schools agree abont the truth of 15 

propositions ••• ••• ••• 5 

(1) Man is a complex of conacioasness, mind 

and matter ••• «.. ••• 8 

Pare conscionsness, Samvit ••• •«. 9 

Analysis of a * state' of mind by Prof. James... 11 
Two meanings of the word ' conscionsness ' ac- 
cording to Stont ... ••• ••• 13 

The Hindn idea of conscionsness-Parnsha ••• H 

(2) The Atmfi is of the nature of consciousness 

and immutable ••• ••• ••« 15 

(3) Mind is other than and is material 17 
Material characteristics of mind ••• 18 
Difficulty of realizing the materiality of 

mind ••• ••• ••• 20 

(4) Psychic life obeys fixed laws ••• ••• 25 

The illusion of Free will ... ..» 29 

(5) The sense-organs and action-organs are 

made of subtle matter ••• ... 32 

(6) The Li Aga-deha .-. ^ ... 33 

(7) Periodical incarnation ••• — 35 

(8) Laws of Matter—S Guvm •m •« 38 

(9) Pralaya and Ealpa ... ••• 44 

( H ) 


(10) The Sabtle elemeots — tanm&tra ... 47 

(11) All energy bound up with conBciouBness ^ 5«3 

(12) PrAna.«« ... ... ••• 58 

(18) Eanna ... ••. ... 60 

(14) BeginningleeenesB of Saitisira ... 63 

(15) Moksha, the Goal of Life ... ••• 65 

Chaptbb II. 

The individnalistio vs. the monistic tendency ••• 66 

The same in the Bhagavad Qita ^ ••• 69 

The fundamental qaestion of Metaphysics ••• 70 

Section L Veddnta, 

Param Brahma «•« ... ••• 7^ 
The nature of the Veddnta Sutras ... ^ 75 
The conception of Brahma according to the Ve- 
ddnta Sutras ... ... ... 77 

PlotinuB on the One ••• ••• ... 79 

Spinoza on God •«• ••• ... 80^ 

The individual Soul and the Supreme Brahma 
— Three different views of the Yedantic 

teaching ... m^ ••. ... 82 

The Bishis vs. the Acharyas ... ^ 84 

^aftkara's Advaita ... m« ... 86 

B&m&nuja's Yifishtldvaita ... ... 91 

Madhva's Dvaita ••• ••. ..« 9C 

Section 11. A. Sdnkhj/a. 

Purusha ... ••• ••« Mt lOl 

Prakriti ••• ••• ••• ••• 102 

( «" ) 


The Gu^ae ... 

• •• 

• •• 


The History of the SInkhya 


• •• 


B. Yoga 

^^nahta and driaya 




• a. 

• *. 


Section TIL Agama 

The early vedic religion 




The later vedio religion 




The rise of Um4 ^ 


• •• 


The Trimfirti ... , 




Uonotheistio movements 

• •• 

• •• 


TheTantraa ^ 

• •• 

• •• 


The inflaence of the Agamas on Indian life 






The Agamas, theirnatnre 



The three Uttyas of the Igamas 







Chronological Notes > ... 




i Sdkta. 


• •• 



The three fiktatattTas 

• •• 



Praklaa and 7imaras 




ii Saiva, 
Three inbdiTisions ... ,„ ^ 147 


( iv ) 

(1) Pd^upata 

Three oltimateB .•• .^^ ••• 149 

(2) Siddhdnta. 

Three ultimates... •• •.. 152 

Mftla ••• ••• ••• 1S7 

M4ya ... ... ^ ... 169 

P«8Q •«« ... ... ... 161 

The Linglyatas .,• ••• ••• 162 

History of 9l?a ... ... ... 164 

(3) Praiyahhijaa, 

History of the school ^ ••. 168 

Spanda or ChaitaDya ..• ... ... 170^ 

Sakti ... ... ... ... 172 

FratyabbijIUL aod AdraiU .«. ... 178 

iii Yaishnrnva. 

The Yaish^ara Agamaa ... ... 174 

Brahma and his forms .•. •.. 176 

The three categorieE^the pcmtioii of Lakfrlml •.. 180 

Later history of Lakshmi ... ... 184 

Modem Vi|i8btldTaita ... ... 185 

Tatt?atrayam ... / ••• ^ 166 

History of Vishnu ... ••. ... \^ 

Section IV. Vais^shiha and Njfdjfa. 

General Nature ••• ••• ... 194 

( V ) 

A. VaifeMha 

Six padirihas 


Atna ••« 



Othar Snbatances 


B. Wydjra. 


AtlD& ••• ••• 

B>l60Mnti ••• ••• 

tfTur* ... ... 

Opposition to the theorj of illation ... 
Oifftrant uMnes and conceptions of the sonl in 
diffeiwt schools ... ... m 

Section V. PHrva Mimdmtd. 

The different strata in the Tedie literature ... 

The compilation of the Veda ... m. 

The eomplexitj of the ritna] ... ... 

The origin of Ny&yas .m 

The Brihmafas ... 

The MlmAmsi ... ... 

The eternity of sonnd ... ... ... 


ApQrra ... ... ... ... 

The Onmmata school ... 

The doctrine of Spho}a of Bhartinhari 

The same according to Vijllna Bhikshn ... 



















( vi ) 

Section VL The Bhagavad Ottd. 


Probable origin ••• ... «• 240 

Supreme Bealitj ^ ... ... 24S 

The IchAryas thereon .•• ... 245 

Chapter III. 

The fandamenUl qaestion ••• ... 251 

A Arambha Vdda, 

The theory of Coinherence ^ ... 252 

The later history of the theory ... .«. 256 

Udayana's argaments for the existence of an 

tfTara ... .,• ... 260 

B. Parindma Vdda. 

The theory of the existence of the effect in the 

cause ... ... .M 262 

1. Sdnkhya, 

The transmutation of matter 


•« ? 


Baddhi .•• ••• 








The ele?en organs m« 








The manifested nniTcrse 




2. Yoga, 

The stages of erolntion 


• •c 


The flaxes 





( vii ) 

3. Viddnta 

The materiml of the uni?erie ... ••• 279 

S;i8h|i, cremtion ••• ... .„ 282 

The three regions ••• ... ... 286 

4. Saiva and Sdkta • 

The 36 tattvas ... ... ••• 289 

Atma tattTae ••• ..• m* 289 

Yidji tattTSB, SiTA tattTft ... «.. 292 

The hierarchies of De?i8 ••• •., 295 

5* Vaithnava 

The Oosmio beings and spheres ... ... 299 

The forma of the Supreme ••• ••• 300 


NOTB« Ibis iDdez refers to chap. II and HI ud 
deals only with technical terms that have 
different meanicgs or refer to things named difEerentlj 
in different schools. The noa. refer to pages. 

The following contractions are used in this Index. 
A.AdTaita;Y. VisishtlkdTaita; D. Svaita 
8.8lnkhya; Y. Toga; Va. Vaiseshika; N. 
^y^J^; S. Saiya Siddhlnta; Pa. Plsn- 
pata; Pr. Praty abhi jn4 ; §». S&kta; Vai. 
Vaishnava; H^Mtm&ns*. 

A ch i t : nnoonscions, matter (V.), 98, cor. M ft 1 a- 

Adfish^a: unseen : nnseen oanse of actions (Ya., 
lf.>,258; karma (S.), 296. 

AhamkAra: I — maker: the oonscionsness of 
Self as opposed to not-self , (8), 269 ; [treated by later 
A. as a snb-division of antahkarana, the inner 
organ ; to be distinguished from A h a m t &, I — ^ness, 
the 9akti of the Igsmas, who is a goddess, the world* 
mother and not a tattva merely2' 

A 1 i ik g a : without distinguishing marks or which 
cannot merge into another: primal matter (T,), 112; 
cor. Ufilaprakfiti (8.). 

Ann: tiny, minute : a.tom, (1) eternal, ultimate 
•nb-division of earth, air, fire and air (Ya., IS.) ; Manaa 

( i" ) 

J i T 1 1 m I : self liying (in the manifested world) : 
indmdaal self (A.), 86 ; f reqaentlj contracted into 
jtva, especiallj in later A., and D. ; Cor. chit (V), a^n 
(S), pasu (P., $), pnrnsha (8.)^ drashtt (Y.), Itml 
(Va. N.) 

Kail: small part: (1) insentient matter (P.) U9- 
150; (2) that which manifests chaitanja partiall/ 
(Sa), 290. 

Klra^&vaathl: o&asal condition : Param- 
Brahma daring praUya (V.) 94; Cor. Faram Atma (A.). 

KArylyasthl: Effected condition : Param- 
Brahma daring Kalpa (V.), 91 ; Cor, Ifvara (A.). 

Krijk: action, asaal sense everywhere : Bajaa 
(Y.), 112. 

Kshetrajfla: knower of the field : Individual 
soul (Vai., Bhag. GitA), 184; Cor. Jtvfttml (A.), chit 
(V.), etc. 

TA&jk: power of eaosing illasion : (1) a power of 
tsvara (A.), 88; same as Avidyl (A.)> 89 ; (2) treated 
as an entity (later A.), ih; (3) the womb of the 
world (Sa), 158 ; of two kinds (Sdu) 158—161. 

M&laprakfiti: root- matter: Nomuenon of 
material objects (S), 103-5 in some respects like 
Param Brahma also asat of the Vedsnta, ether of 
science, ib ; Cor : Aling«i (Y.), idamtA (Sa), achit (V.), 
ayidy& (A.), avyakta (A.), 

Nirvisesha Brahma: Brahma free from 
specific attribntes : word used by BAm&naja, 92, and 

( V ) 

Srlkftra, 162^ in roferring to th« Par^m BriJim»; of 
A., frequently called especially in later k., Nirgofa 

Param B rahma: Sapreme Being : needchiefly 
in Ved&ata ; in Bigveda, 72 ; in Bhag* Gita, 72, 24i ; 
in Upanishads^ 74 ; in Vedanta Si^tras ; 77, in (A.)> 
86; in (V.) 92-94; in (D.), 97-98; Cor. Praklsa 
(Sa.), Nirlya^a ( Vai), Siva (§.) 

Pisa: fetter: (^) 155-6, vaguely corresponds 
to prakfiti. 

Paf a: cattle: individual self (P.), H9, (S), 154-155; 
161-162 ; Cor., Jivltmi (A., D.), chit fV., Vai.). 

Pati: Lord : Sapreme Lord (P), 149, (S), 153; Cor. 
Param Brahma (Yedlnta), also> $|7ara o! various schools. 

Prak&sa: light: (1) light of consciousness (S.), 
291, also generally used ; (2) Sattva Guna (Y.), 112 ; 
(3) the Supreme, (?a.) 141, 143, 144, Cor. Param 

PradhAna: chief: Syn. of Mulaprakfiti 

Prakfiti t [?] how a thing is made : the * object ' (S0» 
101 ; used by most schools also. 

P u r n s h a : orig. mean, unknown : male : the 
'sabject' (8.), 101 ; used by most schools also. 

Sakala: with parts: (I) a class of individual souls 
(5.), 161 ; (2) the gross forms of Nirlyana (Vai.), 177, 
Sat : being : (1) differentiated consciousness^ conscious 

( vi ) 

being (VedftnU), 72, 74, 81, etc; (2) the Sapreme 
(V.), 92. 

S tl & : Syn. of Onna (Y.), 112. 

Sthiti: rest: (1) name of Tamas (Y.), 112 (2) 
maintenance of the world (Yai.) 183. 

Spanda: Vibration: Name of the SupTeme.(Pr.)^ 
170: Oor. Param Brahma, etc. 

V i d 7 & : knowledge : (1) cognition of the identity of 
the indiyidual and supreme self (A«)» 87 ; (2) method of 
meditation (upanishads), 120; (3) Sentiency (P.), 149; 
(4) a class of tattvas (Sa.), 292 ; (5) the 30th tattva (Sa.), 

Vikriti: Alteration: (1) effect (S.)» 108; (2) 
Param Itaml (Yai.), 178. 

Yisesha: difference: (1) species (Ya.), 197; (2) 
elements that produce bodies (S), 273. 



I have, in the following pages, attempted 
to separate the varied threads of the tangled 
skein of modem Hindu philosophical thought 
and religious beliefs. £ach school of ancient 
thought was based on a special point of view 
of its own and was promulgated for the 
purpose of emphasizing the particular stand- 
point which appealed to the persons that 
founded and elaborated that school. But 
"as the water that rains from the sky 
goes all to the ocean '^ and once mixed with 
the ocean, the countributory streams be- 
oome indistinguishable from one another^ so 
modern Hinduism has received the tribute 
of the Upanishads, the S&ftkhya- 
yoga, the Vaiseshika-n'yfty a and the 
triple A gam as, and its wonderful toler- 
ance has intricately mixed up all these 

( H ) 

elements. I have endeavoured to separate 
all these elements and exhibit separately 
the teachings of these ancient systems. 

In doing so, I have attempted to discuss 
the ideas of the earliest available exposition 
of each school In India, thinkers, however 
independent they may be, whatever new vis- 
tas of thought they may open up, are com- 
pelled by inexorable orthodoxy to father their 
opinions on the ancients. The boldest thin- 
ker this country has produced, Safikara, 
felt it necessary to seek the sanction of ortho- 
doxy by deriving his new ideas from the old 
BrahmaSiitras and the older U p a n i- 
shads. Being a philosopher, he had to 
pretend to be a scholiast. Obversely, each 
commentator on an older philosophical work, 
while professing to expound his author, im- 
ports some of his own ideas in the comment 
and thus unconciously helps on the move- 
ment of thought. Thus, to take an illus- 
tration from modem schools, when the canon 
may be expected to be definitely fixed, 
Suresvara, the premier disciple of Safl* 
kara, slightly alters the Advaita of his 
master. The author of B h t m a t i, Vftch* 

( Hi ) 

upati Mif ra, gives . it another twist ; 

afiter him, Vidyftra^ya gives another ; and 

so thought goes on ever changing, though 

not always for the better. So, too, the V i 9- 

ishtftdvaita; of Yftmuna, RAmlLnujay 

Fillai(Lokftchftrya), Vedftnta De^ika 

and Ifanavftla, each has introduced 

some alteration in the scheme of thought. 

Similarly, the early Vaiseshika Sftt- 

Fas ignore a creator or a distributor of re- 

^^wds and punishments: but the modern 

T a r k a school it wedded to a thorough going 

theism. Hence in discussing the opinions 

of each school I have relied on the earliest 

available book and not on the commentaries 

thereon. * In the case of the Brahma 

Sutras, I have made an attempt (the 

first, I believe, by any one) to indicate what 

^ imagine to be the author's position distin- 

* How maoh even Earopean scholars have saocumbed to 
^e inflaance of the oommeatator is proved by the fact that 
^ Uiiller, in traoalating oertaio passages of the upanishads 
Us pot into the text matter found only in Sankara 
^^lihy a ; Denssen's recent exposition of the philosophy of 
^^ Upanishads is vitiated by his identifioation of tiie position 
^^ the Bishis with that of Sankara. Is it any wonder that 
^ average Hindu, to whom the seer and the scholiast are 
^h prophets sees revelation in both text and commeDtaritt ! 

( Jv ) 

guishable from that of the ^ three' schools 
of interpretation, called the '' three creeds ^ 
(trimata) which have engalphed it. 

Though the Hindu venerates the V e d a as 
self-revealed and takes great pride in calling 
himself a Vedftnti and has recently pro» 
posed to himself to carry the light of Ve• 
d 4 n t a to the West, yet the living religion 
of India, what one may call the * working 
faith ' of the Hindus of today, is based on 
the Agamas^ Saiv a, Sik ta, or Vaish- 
jpava; less than a thousand years ago, 
the Agamas were looked on as unauthori- 
tative and Yftmuna, in founding the modern 
Vaishnava Visisht&dvaita school 
felt it necessary to write the Agamaprdmdn^^ 
ya, the authoritati veness of the Agamas. 
To-day, however freely scraps of the U p a- 
ni shads are quoted in discussions, the 
actual opinions and religious practices of the 
Hindus are taken entirely from the Aga- 
mas. For this and other reasons, the Aga- 
mas have been kept secret. I have attempted 
to give an account of them and their funda- 
mental ideas, quoting from unpublished or 
untranslated works. I hope that this will 

( V ) 

direct the attention of scholars to a vast 
virgin soil of investigation likely to yield 
valuable results. ^ 

In cUscussing the various schools my aim 
bsis been to combine the sympathetic insight 
which is possible only to one born and bred 
witlun the Hindu religious fold and the 
critical and impartial judgment of one who 
has shaken himself free from the. shackles 
of sectarian animosity and partlzan en- 
thusiasm. Whether and how far I have 
succeeded it is for the reader to judge. 
The only other works that can be compar- 
ed with this one in scope are the Sarva 
Darmna SaHgraha of M&dhavftchd,rya 
aud the Sarva Veddnta Siddhantasdra, 
attributed to Saflkar&ch&rya, but a late 
work. The former though written with a 
degree of impartiality very creditable in a 
Hindu of five centuries ago^ has for its aim 
not the exposition of the fundamental tenets 
of the many Indian systems of thought, so 
maoh as the glorification of the A d v a i t a 

* Prof. Garbe alone of £arope«n icholarB has realised the 
Tiluof the A ff a m a ■, bat he does notieem to have done mtich for 
their t lucidation. 

( vi ) 

as superior to the rest. Moreover M^Ulha- 
va uses each school only to demolish the 
previous one and his exposition of every 
d arcana (system) is limited by this 
circumstance, those only of the fundamental 
ideas being referred to which help him in his 
object. His account of the A g a m a schools 
is very meagre ; in fact he does not mention 
the SftktaAgmasatall; possibly because 
he himself, being the reputed founder of the 
Sri^geri mutt, was a S&ktaasso many 
Advaitis are and regarded its mysteries 
too sacred to be desecrated by being revealed 
to the public. Of the second work, I could 
get only a part. It is now being edited by 
Professor Rangftchftrya of the Madras 
Presidency College. Its treatment of M !• 
m & m s a is good. The rest does not seem 
to be valuable. 

In dealing with Sanskrit technical terms, 
I have preferred not to employ English 
substitutes especially in the 2nd and 3rd 
chapters. If Indian philosophy is at all to be 
understood by English-speaking peoples, they 
must learn to associate with Sanskrit terms 
their special connotations. No Sanskrit 

( vii ') 

philosophical term can be equated to any 
English word. The word *m anas', for v^ 
instance is usoally translated ^ mind ', but 
the connotations of the two words are by no 
means identical. ^ Ma n a s ' to a Hindu is 
a material, objective thing : it is not the 
brain, for the brain is * gross', whereas 
'man as' is subtle matter. But even a 
orass Western materialist who regards mind 
as a secretion of the brain will not admit 
mind to be matter in any sense of the word ; 
he may deny its separate ^existence as an 
entity, but to him it is subjective and not 
objective. Hence the translation of man as 
as mind cannot but raise obstructive associa* 
tions in the mind of the reader. The word 
^ B u d d h i', again, is absolutely untranslate- 
able. Ahamk4rais self^consciousness, the 
basis of the cognitions, * I am the doer of 
this', but Ahamk&rato the Hindu, is a 
fanction of matter, the object, 4nd not that 
of Self, the subject. Another fruitful source 
of confusion caused by translating technical 
words is due to the fact that different 
schools of thought use the same word in 
differ©»t senses: thus, •yiyeka' to the 


( v"i ) 

Advaiti is the distinction between the 
sabj6ot and the object ; to the V i s i s h t ft- 
d V a i t i, it is the choice of the proper food 
that leads to spiritual enlightenment. The 
word ^ m ft r t a* in the Up a n i s h ad s means 
that which has form and in the V ais eshi k a 
it means that which moves. Obversely 
different words have been ased for the same 
idea in different schools and this has con- 
tributed to the accentuation of their differ- 
ences. It has therefore been thought that 
the synopsis given at the end of the book of 
such terms would be more useful than an 
index mechanically construoted. Yet no 
new Sanskrit technical term has been intro- 
duced in the text without some sort of ex- 
planatory word (suiting the context, but not 
pretending to be a translation) being added, 
for the use of readers who may not care for 
the subtle shades of difference but may like to 
acquaint themselves with the general trend of 
thought of the various systems discussed. One 
English philosophical word alone, I have taken | 
the liberty to use freely, viz.^ ^consciousness ' 
This word I hate used not in its usual ■ 
connotation, in psychological works, of i 

( ix ) 

'mental states', but in the sense of one's 
awareness of those states apart from the 
states themselves. * "Without realizing this 
siarp separation of the operations of the 
mind from the concurrent awareness of them, 
it is hopeless to understand Hindu philoso- 
phy. Huxley and the French School of psy- 
chologists headed by Ribot and Binet appro- 
ximate to this use of the word and theirs is 
DQy authority for appropriating this word in 
this sense. 

My system of transliteration is practical- 
ly the same as that of most European scho- 
lars (barring, of course, Max Mfdler's quaint 
system adopted in the ** Sacred Text-books 
of the East"); but I must apologize to my 
readers for sundry inconsistencies in the trans- 
literation due to the fact that the Tara Press 
has been trained to use a peculiar system 
of transliteration whereby, in violation 
of phonetics, the values of t and t etc. 
^ are reversed ; I must also beg the indulgence 
' of the reader for errors due to defective 

• I cannot close this preface without refer- 

( X ) 

ring to the invaluable help rendered me by 
my friend, Mr, Govinda D&sa of Benares 
both by his criticifiou and 'suggestions and by 
his giving and procuring loans of Mss., by the 
eneyclopcedic scholar, Professor Gaftgan&th 
Jh& of Allahabad in the sections on M i m & n- 
s« and Vaiseshika, and by Mr. F. Bha- 
ttan&tha swami of Vizagapatam, without 
whose help I could not have deciphered or 
interpreted parts of my Mss. material. 

Vizagapatam, ) ^ ^ « 

4th June 1909.1 P' T. SRimvAs Iybnoak. 



Cycle of ideas common to all philoso- 
phical SCHOOLS OF India. 

tS it was in ancient Greece and Rome so it is 
in modem Europe and America ; various 
schools of Philosophy are being propounded^ 
each challenging every fundamental principle of 
the rest Not so in India, where though the diflFerent 
Darsanas disagree about important questions^ 
the ideas common to all these systems are so many 
and so vital that these deserve to be formulated by 
themselves under the name of Hindu Philosophy, 
These ideas, are as a rule assumed and not 
definitely expounded in the literature of the differ- 
ent schools ; each school being naturally anxious 
to explain and justify by argument, the special 
points of doctrine and discipline which constitute 
its individuality, and differentiate it from its sister 
philosophies. These philosophical schools are 
commonly enumerated as six, called the Shad- 

( 2 ) 

EtaysapV^*: :*T^p of ^^tm are wholly based on 
.'• tte^.Vf ^ie^exts and an»^called the tw^ Mimitn <k s ;* 
**^yV ifevix v*a-ana U 1 1 a r a (Earlier and l^atter \ 
otherwise, Karma Mtin&ms& and B r a h m a 
MfmSms^, investigation of D harm a and of 
Brahma. The other four are based on reasoning 
and while paying homage to the supreme authority 
of the Veda do not derive their substance from 
Vedic texts, viz: S&nkhya, Yoga, NyAya, 
and Vai$eshika, the disciplines of Enumera- 
tion, Effort, Reasoning and Definition respec- 
tively. M&dhava, in his Sarva'dar^ana-sahgraha 
however, classifies the schools of his time as sixteen, 
viz, Ch&rv4ka, Bauddha, Arhata,RAm&- 
nuja, PQrnaprajfIa, N ak ulisa-p^su- 
pata, Saiva, Pratyabhijft^ Rases- 
vara, Vaiseshika, Akshap^da, Jai- 
miniya, Pdnintya S^fikhya, PAtaft- 
j a 1 a and SAhkara.f He professes to 
explain the specific teachings of each school, 
but one gets lost in this forest of philosophical 
systems and foi^ets that in them there is very 

* R&mftauja defines 'mtmdmtd' to be** a discussion of sentences 
of the Veda for the purpose of specially determining the nature 
and modes of (the things referred to in the Veda).** 

t MAdhATa*8 chapter on S&okara darsvia, so long believed 
by all scholars to be identical with the book called Pan^kadasi 
has been discovered in the Tanjore Library by GoTioda D&sa of 
Benares and in^rporated in th« recently published Anandisrama 
•edition of the Sarcadar^OTiaiangraha^ 

( 3 ) 

much more community of opinion than diversity^ 
which alone McLdhava emphasises. We shall discuss 
in this chapter these fundamental assumptions of 
Hindu thought, so as to prepare the way for the 
consideration of the different teachings of the 
various schools with regard to individual problems 
and to methods of philosophical training. 

Philosophy to all modern western thinkers, is 
chiefly a matter of speculation ; to them its in- 
terest is mainly intellectual, in that it solves 
problems that have troubled the mind ; but to the 
Hindu as to the ancient Greek and Roman, 
philosophy has besides this theoretical, a practical 
interest the regulation of life. *' In ancient times,'' 
says Dr. Bussel, ''The pursuit of wisdom was 
practical and implied adherence to a definite rule 
of life" (Personal Idealism^ P. 342) ; and so it 
is in India even to-day. Philosophy has never 
been in India dissociated from life; hence each 
school sets about its investigations with the specific 
aim of discovering the means of man's attainment 
of a state of perfection called M o k s h a . This is 
the raison d\etre of each school. Unless it em- 
bodies a definite method of intellectual, ethical and 
spiritual training, leading a man up to perfection, 
it has according to Hindu ideas no justification for 

The only modern European philosopher that 
recognises this to be the function of philosophy is 

( 4 ) 

the semi-oriental Spinoza. The opening sentence- 
of bis D$ IntelUctHS Em$ndatione (Transl. Elwes). 
says, '' After experience had taught me that all the 
usual surroundings of social life are vain and 
futile ; seeing that none of the objects of my fears 
contained in themselves anything either good or 
bad, except in so far as the mind is affected by 
thenji, I finally resolved to enquire whether there 
might be some real good having power to com- 
municate itself, which would affect the mind singly, 
to the exclusion of all else; whether, in fact^. 
there might be anything of which the discovery 
and attainment would enable me to enjoy conti- 
nuous, supreme, and unending happiness." 

As to Spinoza, so to all Hindus, philosophy 
begins with V a i r & g y a , estimation of pleasures 
and pains at their proper value, and ends with 
M o k s h a . The first impulse to philosophy is not 
intellectual but emotional and moral. " ' What hast 
thou to do with riches ? What hast thou to do witb 
kin ? how shall wives bestand thee, son ! that shalt 
surely die ? seek the Atman, that which lieth hidden 
in the cave. Where are gone thy father, and the 
fathers of thy father?' Such was the teaching, still 
more ancient, addressed by an ancient Indian- 
father to an ancient Indian son — addressed by 
Vyftsa to his son Shuka — Shuka who grew, to 
be greater even than his great father. And such 
iised to be the origin of philosophy in olden India.'' 

( 5 ) 

(BhagavAn Dis, Science of the Emotions, p. p.) 

And such ought to continue to be always the 
power that inspires philosophy if it is to be some- 
thing more than arid logomachy, laboured pound- 
ing of husk, fruitless and only too often leading 
to hypocrisy, to pharisaic self-righteousness, to 
pompous protestations and poor performance . The 
world has a moral value and philosophy ought to 
serve a nobler purpose than merely securing to its 
devotee the feeling of intellectual satisfaction in the 
acquisition of an idea by the path of speculation. 

Philosophy, therefore, to a Hindu means not 
merely a body of opinions to be believed, but a 
life to be lived, a training to be undergone for 
attaining a state of release from bondage.* It is 
therefore unfair to these schools to judge of them 
as western writers invariably do, as theories to be 
argued about, apart from the practical training • 
that they prescribe. 

All these disciplines, except the school of crude 
philosophical Nihilism as expounded in the Sarva^ 
dar^anasahgraha under the name Ch&rv^ka and 
attributed to Bfihaspati, are agreed about the 
truth of the following propositions regarding the 

• Even the PdrvaMimaip^A, thoagh this is not comtnoaly 
recogaized, proposes to leid to a state that caa be properly callel 
Moksha for, as Nachiketaa says,— '•Those who live in the Heaven * 
world reach immortality;* Kfithop%nMhAt^ i. 13. tld^e Yanii's 
reply, /*. i. 17- J 8. 

( 6 ) 

constitution of the cosmos, the nature of man, and 
the goal of human evolution. 

(i) Man is a complex of comciousness, mind 
and body. 

(2) The Atm4 is of the nature of consciousness 

and is immutable. 

(3) Mind (an t a h-k a ran a), though an inner 

organ is mbterial ar.d is other than the- 

(4) Psychic life obeys fixed laws and hence 

all mental events are determinable. 

(5) The five sense-organs (j n ^ n e n d r i y a s) 

and the five action-organs (karmen* 
driyas) are, like the mind, made of 
subtle matter. 

(6) T he eleven organs inhere inalifigadeha 

or subtle body, which is relatively per-^ 

(7) The lihgadehais periodically connected 

with a body of fiesh and blood, which 
provides man with sense-organs and 
action- organs of gross matter. 

(8) Matter (p r a k r i t i) is mutable but increate 

and obeys fixed laws. 

(9) The world history is made up of alternat- 

ing periods of activity (k a 1 p a) and rest 
(p r a 1 a y a). 

j ( 7 ) 


10) Ihe subtle elements that make up all 
objects are five, corresponding to the 
five senses. 

(ii) AH energy in the universe is persona^ 
i, e. bound up with consciousness - of 
varying degrees o£ intensity. 

(12) This energy is pr&^a, which is inter- 

mediate between spirit and matter. 

( 1 3) The law of causation — k arm a — is supre* 

me in the physical and mental worlds. 

(14) Samsdra, the course of karma, is 

a n A d i, had no beginning. 

(15) Moksha is the goal of human life and 

results from the training of the mind^ 

and hence reaching the state of m o k s h a 

is a definite mental event. 

It is curious that these fundamental doctrines 

upon which all schools of Hindu philosophy are 

absolutely agreed, deal with questions about which 

western philosophers have been hopelessly divided 

from tb^ time of Aristotle to modern days. It 

is also worthy of note that in this long list of 

propositions about which all these schools are 

agreed, there is no reference to God or to His 

relations with the cosmos. For while the VedAn- 

(a is a school of Pantheism, all the rest are, as 

expounded by their founders, what the European 

thinker would regard as atheistic ; while all of them 

( 8 ) 

recognize tbe existence of the many powers of 
Nature, they exclude the conception of one Uni- 
versal Being. The earlier Sfthkhya, Vai^eshika 
and MImftmsS works are frankly atheistic. The 
Yoga and theNy^yaSAtras refer to a Deity, 
but the former makes him but an ancient teacher, 
and the latter but an adjuster of rewards and punish- 
ments and no more. The later expounders of all 
these systems have given a theistic twist to them, 
because in later days, the Ved^nta became popular 
and hencet he name N i r ! s v a r a, atheistic, became 
a term of reproach. 

We shall now discuss the fifteen propositions 
which are common to all these schools. 

(i) Man is a complex of consciousness, mind 
dind body. 

In western philosophy the concepts *con- 
:sciousness ' and ' mind ' are not mutually exclu- 
sive. They are sometimes used synonymously ; as 
when * states of consciousness ' and ' states of the 
mind ' are used as the names of the successive phases 
of the flux of the inner life ; at other times * con- 
sciousness ' is treated as a quality or adjunct of 
mental life ; but in Eastern philosophy these two 
concepts indicate two things absolutely distinct 
from each other ; consciousness is S a m v i t the en- 
lightener of the mind and the senses and their 
operations; whereas mind, anta^-kara? a, is 
jada, unconscious. In other words, mind is matter 

( 9 ) 

and consciousness is spirit S a m v i t, pure consci- 
ousness, is what manifests to the man himself the 
operations of his mind and of his senses. To bor- 
row an analc^y from the senses, the eyes see the 
world when opened and directed towards objects. 
Similarly when S a m v i t, consciousness, is turned 
on mental processes, the spirit sees or knows the func- 
tioning of his mind. It is as if a ray of light pro- 
ceeded from the spirit and enlightened the proces- 
ses of perception, reasoning, etc. These mental 
functions exist whether consciousness accompanies 
them or not, just as the world exists whether 
beings see it or not. Sight manifests them to the 
individual ; so the light of consciousness manifests 
the functions of perception, reasoning and conation 
to the man. Consciousness is not thought, for the 
latter is a procession of images, and the former the 
manifestation of them to the man himself. Even 
Hindu writers sometimes confound the two, for the 
word j ft & n a is used for thought as well as for con- 
sciousness ; nor is the word chaitanya devoid of 
ambiguity, because the idea of motion (which is a 
function of material objects) is associated with it. 
' Pure consciousness ' has to be distinguished 
from 'personal consciousness.' This latter is 
investigated by Prof. James in chap, xii of his 
Text'book of Psychology. He subdivides it into 
two parts (i) the self as known, the 'Empirical 
Ego', or the fne and (2) the self as the knower, the 

( 10 ) 

* Pure Ego \ or the I. The former he subdivides 
into (i) the 'material me,' the body, etc, (2) the 
'social me,' the recognition one gets from his 
mates, and (3) the 'spiritual me', the entire collec- 
tion of one's states of consciousness ; the ' pure 
Ego' he defines as the Thinker, the Agent behind 
the passing ' states of consciousness,' whose exis- 
tence psychology has nothing to do with. This 
is the best commentary on the proposition that 
man is a complex. But elaborate as this classifica- 
tion is, it does not distinguish between ' pure con- 
sciousness ' that is unchanging light and ' personal 
consciousness ' which is mind as illuminated by the 
spirit, between chitaakti, and chitta-vptti 
as the Yogi terms them. ' Personal consciousness' is 
Aham, an ideal construction from experience, 
just as the world is an ideal construction and be- 
longs to the conceptual plane. ' Pure conscious- 
ness ' is Atmd, a fact underlying all that is given by 
experience. The pure consciousness of the Puru$ha 
is that of which the personal consciousness bound 
up with mental or bodily activities, with which 
alone we are normaly acquainted, is a reflection in 
matter. When we move the muscles of the body 
we are conscious of pleasure and pain, of perception, 
conation, or judgment and we are conscious of our- 
selves as separate from the objects outside us. These 
are states of personal consciousness, each state beicg 
a complex. From it let us eliminate whatever is 

( " ) 

cootribu ted by the bcdy and by the mind. What re- 
mains is the consciousness that accompanies all men- 
tal processes, first differentiated by Flotinus among 
western philosophers and called the accompani- 
ment — p arakolonthesi s — of the mental activi- 
ties by the soul. This is the light of consciousness 
which manifests both the mental and the physical 
worlds. It is the power of pure intelligence — c h i t* 
s^kti — which being unchangeable, cannot become 
the seat of perception, for this latter belongs to the 
mind. We have thus reached a vague idea of pure 
consciousness as separate from mental activity, by 
abstract! on from the personal consciousness. Pure 
consciousness however, is not an abstraction but 
a reality, the greatest reality attainable by man. 
The realization of this life of the Atm& is the aim 
of all schools of Indian philosophy. 

What is called the inner life of man is termed 
* the stream of consciousness* in western philosophy. 
Prof. James notes the following four characteristics 
in the flowing 'states of mind ': — 

(i) Every 'state' or thought is part of a 
personal consciousness. 

(2) Within each personal consciousness states 
are always changing. 

(3) Each personal consciousness is sensibly con- 

(4) It is interested in seme part of its object 

( 12 ) 

to the exclusion of others, and welcomes or rejects 
— chooses from among them. ( Texi^book of Psy- 
chology^ chap, xl ) In this description, the concep- 
tions of 'state', and of ' change ' belong to matter ; 
those of 'continuity' and 'choice' belong to the Puru- 
■^ha and personal consciousness is due to the u nion of 
the two. Matter presents itself as a series of changing 
states, and spirit, whose light is continuous, chooses 
a few of them and illuminates or manifests them 
to himself by seeing them. Only we must regard 
all states of the mind — all cognitions, desires and 
actions as states of matter that is always in a flux, 
and not as belonging to the spirit, whose life is 
continuous and unbroken. Prof. James explains 
that the third of the above four propositions "means 
two things : (a) That even where there is a time-gap 
the consciousness after it feels as if it belonged 
together with the consciousness before it, as another 
part of the same self; (b) That the changes from 
one moment to another in the quality of the cons- 
ciousness are never absolutely abrupt. '* (/*.) This 
continuity is explicable only if consciousness is 
regarded as separate from mental states, and the 
relation between the two to ht similar to that be- 
tween a light and a procession of objects illuminated 
by tha light. There is no change in the 'quality' of 
consciousness, but to strain the analogy a little, 
the objeci, in this case a state of mind, goes to the 
outermost fringe of the field of illumination a^nd 

( 13 ) 

lience looks dim and no more. 

G. F. Stout {Manual of Psychology^ p. 8 ) notes- 
two uses of the word consciousness: — (i) To indi- 
cate all mental states whether we have cognizance 
of them or not (2) the awareness we have of our- 
selves and of our own experiences, as states of the 
Self — an inner sense — the function by which we per* 
cetve the mind and its processes, as sight perceives 
material facts. Father Maher distinguishes three 
meanings generally attached to this word, (i) To 
indicate the sum total of our psychical exist- 
ence, all cognitive, emotional and appetitive 
states which are capable of being apprehended. 

(2) The mind's direct, intuitive, or immediate 
knowledge either of its own operations or of 
something other than itself acting upon it ; in 
other words, the energy of the cognitive act, and 
not the emotional or volitional acts as cognized. 

(3) The reflex operation by which the mind attends 
to its states and recognizes them as its own. 
{Psychology^ "p^. 26-27.) The second meaning 
of consciousness, according to Stout and Maher 
approximates to some extent to the Hindu idea of 
it Perception, Emotion and Conation are functions 
of the mind that take place according to mental 
laws, whether they are, or are not, illuminated by 
the light of the spirit ^and manifested to it. In 
ordinary psychic experience this consciousness of 
the %f\x\t is inextricably and compulsorily bound 

( 14 ) 

Up with the life of the mind ; and can be understood 
only when it can be separated from the mind and 
<;ontemplated apart from its mental colouring. This 
pure consciousness being the immaterial part of 
man is called P u r u s h a — Msin^par excellence. It is 
also called J fi a, the knower,for he knows or becomes 
conscious of the functions of the mind, the senses, 
and the muscles and of himself as the Atm&. 
Furusha is Svayam-prakft$a, manifesting his 
own being. He knows himself to be, unlike the mind 
and the body whose existence is manifested only 
when cognized by some conscious being. Hence 
<:0nsciousness is frequently compared in Hindu books 
to light. The light of the sun reveals itself to us 
directly and when it beats against any object it 
manifesto the existence of that object also. So the 
P u r u s h a reveals his existence to himself and also 
illuminates a mind or a body he is in contact with, 
which otherwise would be unconscious, unknown, 
unmanifested to him. European Idealism makes the 
existence of matter depend on its being made mani- 
fest by the mind. It holds that whether there be a 
noumenon behind what we cognize as matter or no,it 
is certain that sensations exist and that as sensations 
are mental modifications, no objective existence can 
be manifested in the absence of mind. Constructive 
Idealism represented by John Stuart Mill admits a 
permanent possibility of sensation behind the phe- 
nomena of the objective world ; but the thorough- 

( JS ) 

going Idealism of Berkeley does not. Indian 
thought is a much more profound Idealism than 
these; mind and matter are both objective to the 
P u r u s h a ; they are revealed by him, without whose 
illumination they are A sat, non- being, for Sad- 
bh^va, manifestation of being, can never exist 
without the illumination of the P u r u s h a. But to 
himself P u r u s ha is always illuminated; conscious- 
ness is an ultimate factor of human experience and 
cannot be proved or need not be manifested by 
anything else. Descartes argued, ** I think, there- 
fore I am ; " Hindu Philosophers argue, " I am, 
therefore I am." 

2. The Atmd is of the nature of consciousness 
^nd is immutable. 

The part of Man that we have called conscious- 
ness is variously named Purusha, Atna^, 
Bhok td, etc, and its characteristics variously des- 
cribed. Thus the P u r u s ha of the SAnkhya School 
is pure consciousness, devoid of any quality. The 
Atm4 of the Vai$eshikas is characterised by desire, 
efTort and so on. But in all Schools the essential 
nature of the Atmft is Svay am-prak A$atva, 
the power of illuminating or manifesting the mental 
and bodily functions which, but for the Atmft, 
would go on unconscious and unknown. Itself is 
immutable, a steady light that knows not change. 
The immutability and hence the immortality of this 

( i6 ) 

immaterial part of man is involved in its very con* 
ception. Atmft is v i b h u, not limited by space ; 
matter is a n u, atomic. It is, in the words of Plotinus, 
** All in all and all in every part/' Hence the Atmft 
is neither divisible nor indivisible, neither a com- 
pound nor an atom, not susceptible of diminution 
nor of excess. It is futile to attempt to con- 
ceive the origination or destruction of conscious- 
ness, for consciousness is involved io that very 
conception. Creation and destruction are under- 
standable if conceived as the beginning or the 
ending of one of a series of forms in which any 
ooumenon manifests itself in relation to an obser- 
ver ; consciousness being from its very nature im- 
mutable can hence neither begin nor end. " The 
Atmft is J fl a, eternal consciousness, because it is 
increate. Eternal consciousness is the nature of the 
Atma, just as heat and light are of fire.'^ {Sahkara 
Bhdskya on Ved, SAt. If. Hi. i8.) Moreover, AtmA is 
by definition the opposite of An4tm4, matter. The 
essential nature of matter is its mutability, its 
capability to evolve into a procession of phenome- 
nal forms ; whereas Atmft is unchanging. There- 
fore the beginning or the ending of consciousness is 
excluded from the very definition of Atrnfi. He 
may shift his place of illumination from body to 
body ; or rather, a series of bodies may be periodi- 
cally brought near him and shine by his reflected 
light, but he is nitya, eternal. Some Bauddha 

. ( 17 ) 

schools alone, of Indian systems, reject the notion 
of the continuity of the life of the man's Atm&, but 
Buddhism and Jainism are excluded from this 
brief survey of Indian thought, only the so-called 
orthodox schools being included, those that at least 
nominally admit the pr&m&nya, authority, of the . 
Veda and do not openly denounce it as the followers 
of the Buddha and the Jina do. 

(3) Mind, though an inner organ is material 
and is other than the Atmd. -^ 

Lrhe mind of man is an organ made of subtle 
matter and is not immaterial or spiritual but pr&kri- 
ta, made of matter. Sensation, perception, volition, 
etc., are in western philosopdiy called subjective 
states and treated as non-material. Hindu philo- 
sophy analyses them into two factors, viz: (i) a 
mental process internal but not subjective, and (2) 
consciousness accompanying the process and reflect- 
ed from the Atm&. The first is material and the 
second immaterialj Mental processes are variously 
classified in the various schools, the SAhkhya attri- 
buting to the mind all psychic life, and the Vaije- 
shika regarding it merely as the organ of attention, 
but all schools are agreed in regarding mind as . 
matter. This apparent paradox of schools of philo- 
sophy, essentially idealistic, but holding to the view 
called materialism in the west, namely the view that 
mind is matter, has proved a stumbling-block to 
every western scholar. In western philosophy, the 

( i8 ) 

clear-cut concept 'consciousness' as we have form- 
ulated it above has not been attained ; nor are defi- 
nite marks attached to the concept ' matter.' Des- 
cartes made extension the only characteristic of 
matter. This ''confusion of matter with space", as 
Clark-Maxwell called it^even Spinoza, the expounder 
of Descartes, rebelled against. In ordinary thought 
the so-called properties of matter are made to hang 
loosely from that concept, and the phrase 'states of 
consciousness' is held to imply elementary facts 
incapable of further analysis. When consciousness 
is eliminated from the facts of psychic life and 
when it is realized that mental functions are hy 
themselves, jada, unconscious, it ought not to be 
difHcult to understand what the Hindu philosopher 
means when he says that antahkarana is a form of 
matter. Antaltkarana literally means, the inner 
organ as opposed to the outer organs of sensation 
and action. The jfia, the spirit, uses it as an organ, 
and th^rfore it must be other than he, 'since there 
is a knower and an organ of knowledge." ( NyAya 
Satra II L /. 77. ) This mind is objective to the 
spirit. He sees it quite as much outside him as he 
sees his body and the world outside him, whereas 
the knower cannot place himself outside like a 
perceived object. Objectivity to the conscious 
Purusha is the chief mark of matter ; matter and 
mind possess this characteristic. Another idea 
involved in the concept 'matter' is its mutability, 

( 19 ) 

its ever-present flux, its capability of evolving in 
a series of ever-changing phenomena, Anta||t- 
karana evolves in ever-changing phenomenal forms 
(called chittavritti by the Yc^a school) like the 
Mraves and ripples and eddies on the surface 
of a lake, unlike the steady light of the Purusha 
which waxes not nor wanes. 

These phenomenal manifestations of matter in 
a never ending kaleidoscopic flax of forms are sub- 
ject to time and space; and mental events are both 
temporal and spatial. They succeed one another 
in time and are restricted in space to the brain 
which subserves them. Purusha is neither big nor 
small ; he has no before and after. These spatio- 
temporal relations of the manifestations of mind 
are subject to the law of causation. They are 
prakriti-vikriti, related as cause and efiect. But 
consciousness is a steady light and where there is 
no change, there can be nothing subject ^to the 
relation of cause and effect. Hence if, as modern 
Psychology admits, mental states are governed 
by the law of causation, mind is matter, not spirit. 
Atomicity — indivisibility and invisibility — is 
a mark of certain forms of matter accord- 
ing to the Vaiseshika philosophers and mind is 
anu, atomic. Atmft is vibhu, pervasive, everywhere 
and nowhere. Consciousness cannot be conceived 
ks being restricted to any part of the body through 
which it manifests itself ; but the mental processes 

( 20 ) 

of cognition, desire, etc., are certainly not '' all in all 
and all in every part, " but clearly localized. 

Traigu^ya — ^being possessed of the three Gunas 
or fundamental properties, resistance, motion and 
equilibrium — is the chief characteristic of matter 
according to the Sftfikhyas. Whatever resists 
force, can be moved by it and reaches equilibrium 
under the action of many forces — that is matter 
according to this school. Anta^karana displays 
all these characteristics, inertia, excitability and 
finally equilibrium. But consciousness by itself is 
not amenable to the influence o^ external objects. 
It cannot be quenched ; nor can it be increased 
by their influence. Hence it is a category quite 
distinct from mind. 

It is difficult to realize mind to be matter, because 
of the fact that it derives a pseudo-subjectivity on 
account of its being an inner organ. When our 
muscles act, our consciousness accompanies the 
action ; but we can in thought separate the consci- 
ousness from the muscular action and realize the 
latter as a phenomenon of matter that is the non- 
^o, and all the more easily because in the case 
of other human beings than ourselves we observe 
these muscular actions without observing the cons- 
ciousness that accompanies them. But mental 
action each man can study only in the operations 
of his own mind, and as these are accompanied by 
the light of his own consciousness, the separation of 

( 21 ) 

these two and the appreciation of the difference of 
the nature of consciousness and of mental action 
becomes a matter of difficulty. 

Plato and Aristotle use such phrases as the 
" seeing of sight ", " the perceiving of perception/* 
the "thinking of thought " to indicate conscious- 
ness apart from mental functioning. Kena UpanU 
shut uses strikingly similar phrases " what speech 
does not enlighten, but what enlightens speech/' 
" what one does not think with the mind, but by 
whom they say the mind is thought ", " what one 
sees not by the eye, but by whom seeing is 
seen ", ** what one does not hear by the ear, but 
by whonQ hearing is heard," '' what none breathes 
with breath, but by whom breath is breathed, 
this is Brahma, not what people here worship" 
(I. 4'S.) Plotinus, among ancient philosophers 
first clearly formulated this distinction. " Intelli- 
gence is one thing and the apprehension of in- 
telligence is another. And we always perceive 
intellectually, but we do not always apprehend that 
we do so." (Enn. IV. j. 30, Trans. Taylor.) This 
is the first clear indication in European philosophy 
of the existence of unconscious mental action, 
and of the idea that our so-called inner life is a 
complex of two different factors — consciousness 
and unconscious mental modifications. The idea 
that consciousness is not a necessary concomitant 
of mental operations was first clearly enunciated 

( 22 ) 

in modern European philosophy by Leibniz. 
'* As a matter of fact our soul has the power of 
representing to itself any form of nature whenever 
the occasion comes for thinking about it, and I 
think that this activity of our soul is, so far 
as it expresses some nature, form or essence, 
properly the idea of the thing. This is in us and 
is always in us, whether we are thinking of it or 
no." {Metaphysics, Tr. by Montgomery, P.d^.) 
''Perception should be carefully distinguished 
from apperception or consciousness. In this matter 
the Cartesians have fallen into a serious error, in 
that they treat as nonrexistent those perceptions 
of which we are not conscious. " {lb : p. -253.) Sir 
William Hamilton brought into prominence the 
conception of unconscious mental modifications. 
Dr. Schofield, in the opening chapter of his Un- 
conscious Therapeutics^ attributes the phenomena 
of hysteria to the power of unconscious mind, and 
justly complains that the powers of unconscious 
mind have been unduly neglected by investigators. 
But it has not struck western thinkers that mind 
is in itself always unconscions as muscle is always 
unconscious. Ribot, in The Diseases of Personalis 
ty, uses the fact that the life of the mind is some- 
times unconscious, to prove that consciousness is 
^ a simple phenomenon, superadded to the activity 
of the brain, as an event having its own conditions 
of existence appearing and disappearing according 

( 23 ) 

to circumstaiices. " (/^; p. 4*) Binet says, con* 
sdousness is " capable of disappearing withont the 
corresponding nerve process being altered. Two 
similar images succeed each other in the mind. It 
matters little whether we did or did not notice the 
resemblance, for being similar, they will put a 
common cell element in vibration. This identity 
of seat will be sufficient to produce all the results 
which are produced by a resemblance which is re- 
cognised and judged by a conscious comparison. " 
{Psychology of Reasoning p. 126,) ** The forma* 
tion of general ideas must take place without the 
intervention of the cell, in the same manner as 
suggestion by similarity and for the same reasons, 
by the sole virtue of the images raised ; or in more 
accurate terms by the effect of the identity of the 
seat of the particular impression. Images have 
the property of organizing themselves into general 
images as they have the property of suggesting 
similar images/' f/i:/. ^7.) This is true so far 
as it goes, but it does not go far enough, ^/l 
psychic life is in itself unconscious, except in so 
far as the light of consciousness illuminates it and 
manifests it to the knower. Consciousness is 
unique; it exists for itself and of itself. Psychic 
life runs Its own course, following its own laws, 
which are the same as the general laws of matter ; 
this course is not affected by the light of Purusha 
that is sometimes shed on it thus bringing it with- 

( 24 ) 

in his field of vision. Psychic and physio logical 
conditions are invariably bound together, both 
being material functions ; consciousness is not a 
phenomenon or epi-phenomenon of material 
processes as it exists in its own right, neither be- 
ginning nor ending, never increasing, never dimin- 
ishing. Not so the complex fact, which we have 
called personal consciousness, made up of the reflec- 
tion of pure consciousness and of mental functions. 
All mental functions are in themselves unconscious ; 
when the Purusha turns to them he illuminates 
them and makes them manifest ; otherwise they 
would remain as unmanifest as the physical world 
would be in the absence of sentient beings. Mind 
is a material fact just as a muscle is a material fact. 
The action of the mind or the muscle may be or 
may not be accompanied by consciousness. In 
investigating the action of the mind or the muscle, 
consciousness has to be eliminated as an alien fac- 
tor, and mind should be realized to be always 
unconscious in its own own nature, as muscle is. 
Western philosophy not thus distinguishing the 
nature of consciousness to be characteristically 
different from that of mind has raised an insoluble 
problem — "what is the relation of conscious mind 
and unconscious matter ? Is it one of interaction^ 
or of parallelism ?" Either hypothesis is unthink- 
able. It is neither possible nor philosophically help- 
ful to imagine that consciousness and modifications 

( 25 > 

of matter, categories so characteristically apart from 
each other, can interact or run parallel to each other* 
Immutability and mutability cannot meet Mind 
is matter and mental processes are material modi- 
fications. Consciousness may illuminate them,, 
manifest then), or know them, but except this there 
<sai be no other relations between them and con* 
sciousness. Whether the mind be taken as identi- 
cal with the nervous system, as western materialists 
do, or it be constituted of subtle matter as eastern 
philosophers hold, it is absolutely different from the 
Purusha that illuminates it ; though he may out of 
ignorance identify himself with it, he is not really 
identical with it. The disciplines prescribed by 
the founders of the Dar^anas are but means of 
training a man to realize the nature of the Atmft to 
be different from that of mind. The bondage from 
which all the Darsanas except the Purva Mfm^msa 
propose to relieve the Atm& is that due to adhy&sa, 
false identification of himself with mind, the con- 
sequent pain due to ignorance, and moksha is the 
actual realization of the difference of these twa 
Till this difference between the Atm^ and mind is 
grasped it is impossible to understand the philoso- 
phy of the East 

4 Psychic Life obeys fixed laws and hence all 
mental events are determinable. 

As the anta^kara^a is a material organ* its 
modifications must take place under fisoed laws. 

( ^6 ) 

All matter obeys the law of causation. Hence 
every mental event is the resultant of previous 
events, so that if the causes were known, the 
effects could be calculated and predicted exactly 
as in any other sphere of matter. As all schools of 
Hindu philosophy thus regard mind as a form of 
matter, the problem of the freedom of the will was 
never raised in India. The * will ' is a metaphysical 
entity, that is one of which we cannot form a picture^ 
which, in European philosophy, is supposed to l>e a 
factor of the mind and to introduce into phenomena, 
mental or bodily, a new force which can upset all 
known causes of those phenomena. Hindu philo- 
sophy analyses mental events into cognitions, de- 
sires and actions interconnected by causal relations, 
but does not postulate a will among them. The 
threefold life of the mind goes on under the 
triple law of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, but neither 
the mind itself nor anything extraneous to it can 
constrain the mind. There is no other vera causae 
of its movements than Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, 
which are but the conditions of its modifications. 
Hence the so-called freedom of the will is a myth* 
That cannot be called free which obeys fixed 
laws and the course of whose modifications can 
be calculated beforehand. The mind is no more 
free than the apple which falls when it is released 
from the tree which gave it birth. Hence all 
Indian philosophy is deterministic. It regards 

( 27 ) 

all mental action as reflex ; a current of energy 
(called PrAna, the analogue of nervous energy in 
subtle matter) from without, entering the mind and 
returning as an action. In the mind, deliberation 
may intervene between the in-going and out-going 
currents. During the deliberation, motives floating 
in the mind or buried deep within it may rise and 
influence the direction of the return current, but 
all is calculable, all is determinable. No mental 
function is " free " in the sense that the well known 
laws of matter are transcended by them. 

The mind is not free, but the AtmA may attain 
freedom from his bondage to mind. Consciousness 
is involved in most mental and bodily processes. 
We are generally conscious of our thoughts and 
motions. In the case of some of them, we can 
deliberately withdraw our consciousness from 
them. We can turn our consciousness away from 
a passing thought or a casual bodily activity ; but 
an intricate train of thought or a complicated 
co-ordination of muscular contractions perforce 
drags the consciousness into it This compulsory 
involution of the consciousness in mental or bodily 
life is bondage ; the ability to withdraw the con- 
sciousness from mental or bodily events, however 
exciting, or again, the ability to stick to a thought 
which is being hustled out of the field of conscious- 
ness by other thoughts is the freedom which man 
is to gradually acquire by self-training. Thus 

( 28 ) 

freedom is the goal of human evolution ; but thif 
is not freedom of the will» but the liberation of 
consciousness from being compulsorily mixed up 
with bodily and mental events. The Mukta, 
he who has reached perfection, is said to be " free. " 
It is not freedom of the will that he develops, but 
the freedom from the compulsory interlocking of 
his conscious self with his mind and his body. He 
may turn away from matter and thus escape its 
tyranny, but if he uses a mind, he can do so only 
by recognizing its laws and by utilizing them by 
judicious obedience to them just as man uses the 
forces of the physical world by understanding them 
and obeying them. In this sense, the greatest God, 
nay I^vara Himself, is said to be not above the 
Law of Karma. 

The two profoundest thinkers of modern Europe 
Spinoza and Leibniz had no illusions on the 
question of free will. " In the mind there is no 
absolute or free will ; but the mind is determined to 
wish this or that by a cause, which has also been 
determined by another cause, and this last by 
another cause and so on to infinity *'. (Spinoza* 
EMcs, i8, 48, Transl : Elwes.) " All our thoughts 
and perceptions are but the consequence, contingent 
it is true, of our precedent thoughts and percep- 
tions, in such a way that were I able to consider 
directly all that happens or appears to me at the 
present time, I should be able to see all that will 

( 29 ) 

happen to me or ibat will ever appear to me ". 
(Leibniz, Metaphysics, Transl : Montgomery, p. ^5.) 
The theory of free-will has been re-started 
in recent western Philosophy by the argument 
that it is a datum of consciousness. In the 
interest of this theory Munsterberg has propounded 
an illogical antithesis between "truth of life" 
( Free Will ) and truth of science ( Determinism ). 
The function of Science is to group the facts of life 
under ideal schemes, and hence there cannot be any 
antithesis between the two. The new Oxford School 
of Hmanism, led by Dr F. C. S. Schiller, holds the 
view that determinism is a postulate, a methodo- 
Ic^ical assumption in the sphere of science, the 
truth of which is strictly relative to its explanatory 
function. Similarly freedom is a postulate in the 
moral sphere with as good a right to exist 
if it can be used with like profit. But common 
sense rebels against the adoption of two opposing 
postulates to explain the same phenomena. The 
real cause of the difficulty is this : — determinism is 
a fact of the mental world and freedom, possible or 
actual, belongs to the sphere of Atmft. Western 
philosophy treats the mind enlightened by the 
consciousness of the Atmft as one single category, 
whereas a so-called state of consciousness, /. e. 
a psychical event, is a complex of two factors — one 
unique, at present in bondage but with the possi- 
bility of acquiring freedom, and the other, working 

( 30 ) 

under fixed laws. With regard to this mixed cate- 
gory, called personal ccmsciousness, disputes have 
raged. Some looking at one side of the ques- 
tion have maintained it is free and others have 
protested against th« idea. Hindu philosophy- 
escaped being caught in the vortex of this dis- 
pute, because it started with a clear analysis of a 
psychic state into its constituent elements (i) cons- 
ciousness and (2) a flux of psychic phenomena 
and saw, from its inception that freedom as a 
datum of consciousness, and determinism of the 
psychic series as a scientific conception are not 
incompatible, because thy refer to different cate- 
gories. In popular religious thought, the ques- 
tion is still further confused by the importation 
into it of alien problem**. The problem of evil 
supposed to be introduced into the world by a 
personal devil and the idea of the moral responsi- 
bility of man for the proper use of powers he 
was supposed to be gifted with by a personal God 
have confounded the real philosophical question 
at issue. The irrepressible anthropomorphism which 
ruled early human cultures and inspired the ideals 
of so many world -scriptures erected God into an 
autocratic Ruler who gave life and human facul- 
ties to man and ordered him to use them 
according to certain ordinances on pain of punish- 
ment for violation. But science has abolished this 
God made in man's image and this divine law 

( 31 ) 

which was but a glorified copy of human laws. 

Others maintain that effort depends on free will. 
Effort is roughly proportional to stimulus, and be- 
longs as much to matter, as force does ; for what 
depends on stimulus from without cannot in any 
sense be spiritual or free. 

A few aigain fight shy of a frank acceptance of 
determinism from a fear that it will render impos- 
sible man's guiding hts self-improvement. This 
fear is groundless. The supersession of the capri- 
cious Gods of nature of the early< days by the 
recognition of natural law in the material Universe 
has in no wise tended to strangle human efforts 
to utilize nature for human purposes. So, too, will 
the recognition of natural law in the mental and 
moral world not prevent human efforts in mental 
growth ; but on the contrary, it would make self- 
training intelligent and effective and prove it neces- 
sary. Ignorance of the laws of the mental world and 
a blind faith in its being outside the law of causation 
can never help effort. On the contrary a know- 
ledge of the conditions of mental life, of what is 
possible and what is impossible in mental training, 
and of the means whereby we might co-operate 
with nature in the evolution of our minds is the 
best possible help to individual effort for self- 

5 The five sense-organs and the five action- 
organs are, like the mind^ made of subtle matter^ 

( 3« ) 
5. Subject to the mind are the five Jfiftnen- 
iJryas (organs of knowledge) and the 6ve Karmeft- 
dryas (organs of action). These also are made of 
subtle matter. The nervous system is the physio- 
logical counterpart of these eleven subtle organs, one 
«' internal " and ten " external." They are all made 
of SAkshma bhflta, the five kinds of subtle ele- 
mentary matter to be discussed later on. The 
organs of knowledge are those of audition, touch, 
vision, taste and smell. The organs of action, ajre 
those of speaking, handling, walking, excretion 
and procreation. These ten organs are conceived 
as being primarily modifications of invisible subtle 
matter, which evolve into those of the visible 
physical body. Their ten functions are contro- 
led by ten different subtle lines of force and they 
are subordinate elements of psychical life, while 
the functions of the mind are its principal elements. 
Like the mental functions they enter the field of 
consciousness only when the light of ktm& falls 
upon them. At first sight it looks like a violation 
of the law of Parsimony that the senses are conceiv- 
ed as existing both in the physical and super-physi- 
cal matter. But if it is true, as all Hindu Yogis assert, 
that the sense functions are exercised by a. man 
separated from the physical body during life or 
after death, the subtie organs ought to exist 
separate from the gross ones. The division of 
muscular functions ( Karmendriyas ) into five cUss- 

I 33 1 

esi; against the modern physiological idea that 
motor iirjpulscs of all Itinds are one and the same; 
but so lOBgas physiology has not yet been able to 
make ap lis mind as to what a nervous impulse is, 
itcannot object to the Hindu idea of there being 
five different kinds of motor impulses in the subtle 

(6) The Eleven organs inhere in a Liiiga- 
deha which is relatively permanent. 

The mind of man and the other ten organs in- 
here in a body of subtle matter called L i 6 g a- 
d e h a ( characteristic body ) also called a y o n i j a 
(nonuterine body ) and * subdivided variously into 
several subtle bodies by the different schools. 
It is the companion ot the AtmA during his 
longwanderings(Samsara) in a kalpa ( world 
period ). Itisbhati§raya, composed of elemen- 
tary subtle substances. It is also Karma§raya, 
the store-house of sainskiras, potential de- 
posits of man's thoughts, desires and actions. It 
is the vechicle of his p r a n a s , nervous enei^ies 
of various kinds. The union of Purusha 
with the Li n g a <i e h a , during the long period 

• Diffierent SchooU mention different •ubtle bodies, intermedi- 
ite between the permanent li ngadeh. «nd the perishable 
.thftUdeha i.e. chh»y4. Yfitanadeha, etc, perishable 
bodies that the man is provided with during his post-mortem 
peregrinations ; but here we are concerned only with th. general 
principles underlying all Hindu Schools and not the special 
tetchingsof any pM*ie«l" School. 

[ 34 ] 

of his manifested life ( K a 1 p a ) is for the 

purpose of enabling him to experience pleasure 

and pain (b h o g a) and finally reach apavarga 

( emancipation ). Pleasure and pain are not primary 

attributes of physical or psychic life. The action 

of the outside world on man through the sense 

organs produces a reaction in the shape of a motor 

impulse. This motor impulse is a flow of pr&n a 

towards muscles. This flow if uninterrupted is 

called pleasure and if interrupted is called pain. 

Both in normal and morbid conditions pleasure and 

pain are frequently confounded and people find 

pleasure in pain and v i c e v e r s a ; thus proving that 

the flow or interruption of prftna is the primary 

fact and pleasure and pain but an interpretation 

thereof. This is all in harmony with the Hindu 

ideas ; but this flow or interruption of energy 

takes place in the Lihgadeha, whose special 

function isBhoktfitva, capability of subserving 


The Neo-platonists believed in the existence of a 
Lihgadeha. Plotinus speaks of '*a separable por- 
tion of the soul," a "common, dual, or composite 
nature which is the subject in perception," and which 
is an intermediary between soul and body. (Whit- 
taker's Neo-platonists^ pp. 46-49.) This doctrine 
dropped out of European philosophy in the dark- 
ness of the middle ages. On account of the severance 
of the Greek philosophic tradition during this period 

[ 35 ] 

of the obscuration of European intellectual life 
it is impossible to find out what the ancients really 
meant by the terms psyche and mens, nor caa 
we trace the exact correspondence between Greek 
and Hindu philosophy ; only it is certain that the 
modern English translations of Greek terms are 
as inadequate as those of Samsk|:it terms and there 
was more unity of thought between the ancient 
Greek and the ancient Indian than the English 
translations of Greek and Samskfit works indicate, 

7. The Lingadehais periodically connected 
^ith a body of flesh. 

This is the S t h 1 a-d e h a, the "gross body" by 
means of which man acts on nature outside him. The 
addition of this SthOladeha completes the man. 
The personal consciousness as already pointed out 
is the result of the conjunction of the S a m v i t of 
P u r u s h a, the Bhoktritva ( sensibility ) of the 
Lihgadeha and the Kartfitva (capacity for 
action) of the body of flesh and blood. While in this 
body the world offers man pleasures to be enjoyed 
and pains to be avoided. These call forth his activi- 
ties in manipulating nature. When he acts on the 
world he gets a knowledge of the world as object 
and of himself as actor. The resulting pleasure 
and pain intensify this knowledge of self as apart 
from the not-self. Desires and experience of plea- 
sure and pain interact on each other, and he thus 
establishes relations between himself and other 

I 36 ] 

men. He therefore periodically returns to incarna- 
tion for the fruition of his hankerings and the 
satisfaction of the bonds estabh'shed between him* 
self and others. When R^gadvesham (desire 
and aversion) is transcended, compulsory incar- 
nations cease. 

Super-human beings also who normally have 
but subtle bodies sometimes take birth in human 
bodies. This is called Avatar a, a crossing 
over of the boundaries that usually separate the 
currents of human and super-human lives. This 
may be a voluntary or a compulsory incarnation. 
Krishna in the Bhagavat Gtta IV. 6-8 says, 
" Though I am not a being subject to birth and 
death and the Lord of born beings, I by my wonder- 
working power enter into p r a k f i t i that is mine 
and am born in a body. Whenever there is a decay 
of right action and increase of lawlessness, then I 
make for myself a body, O Bhftrata; for the protec- 
tion of the well-doers and destruction of ill-doers 
and the establishment of laws I come to birth age 
after age." The Purdnas abound in tales of 
superphysical beings being made to take physical 
births as a punishment, but an incarnation voluntary 
or involuntary is a limitation to the being that 
undergoes it, for while in a physical body, the laws 
of physical matter cannot be transcended even by 
the highest. But the body also affords the super- 
physical being opportunities to hold intercourse 

[ 37 1 

ydih human beings and affect their destinies in a 
much surer fashion than otherwise, as is indicated 
in the S I o k a s quoted above. If superphysical 
beings should from their own spheres act directly 
on the brains of man, it would be at the cost of 
upsetting the nervous, and hence the mental and 
moral, equilibrium of the man acted on. Inspired 
prophets have always been abnormal men in whom 
pathological conditions have been prominent and to 
them perfect sanity as we understand it has been 
impossible because their evolution has been so dif- 
ferent from ours. For even an 1 s v a r a is not omni- 
potent in the sense that laws of being (material or im- 
material) can be suspended by him. The only way 
He can directly affect human beings is by birth 
among them as a man. As Antaryftml (inner 
controller ) he turns the wheel of life ; he is on- 
looker, approver, supporter, enjoyer, greatest 
sovereign and highest self in the body ( Bhag\ GUd 
XIII. 22), but laws of nature (P r a kf i 1 1) are immu- 
table and she is the root of all mutations and 
qualities {Ib\ 13-19). 

AvatAra is popularly understood as a '* descent'' 
of iBvara into mundane regions. This is absurd. 
Ijvara is everywhere and hence a " descent " would 
be to Him an impossible feat Hindu writers take 
<^re to explain that what actually takes place in 
Avatftrasis but the manifestation, generally tem- 
porary, of a ray of Him, through the body of an 

t 38 1 

advanced human being, more than He is manifest- 
ed In the heart of the ordinary man. Even Krishna 
said to be a " full " Avat&ra became an ordinary 
man sometime before his death. 

8 Matter is mutable, but increate and obeys^ 
fixed Laws. 

Matter like the 11 t m ^ is increate and indestruc- 
tible. Creation ex n i h i 1 o and dissolution again 
into nothingness have been notions always obnoxi- 
ous to Hindu thinkers. The Samskf it root S f i ji 
means to pour out, emit, beget and S f i s h 1 1 means 
emission or emanation. In the Vedas the self- 
existent is always spoken of as emitting or emanat-- 
ing matter as well as living beings by means of 
t a p a s , meditation. Leibniz among European 
philosophers agrees with the Hindus in regarding 
creation "as a kind of emanation just as we produce 
our thoughts" (^Metaphysics ^\x. Montgomery p. 23). 
The chief characteristic of matter is that it is 
d n gy a, gefcept ibfep that w hich becomes anobject 
to theknoiK£ra_ It is j a ^ a z. ^., its existence 
'coulHlbe manifested only by the spirit that is the 
seer ; it is not svayam-prak&$a,/^. it cannot 
of itself manifest its being. It is prakfiti-vikfiti^ 
mutable. It transforms itself into a series of 
phenomena during a cycle of manifestation 
(kalpa), each* phenomenon being a modification 
of a previous something and itself soon modified 
into something else. This susceptibility to- 

[ 39 ] 

change of name and form, n&marflpa, as well 
as its objectivity are the primary characteristics 
of matter. Matter is also atomic, B h i n n ft, whereas 
the A t m i, cannot be broken up into minute parts. 
It has three primary characteristics or Gun as 
which are the fundamental laws of its being-* 
Tamas, Ra jas , and Sa tt va. In the physical 
world, Tamas is the property of inertia and 
sums up the facts that particles of matter or 
material objects tend to retain their states of 
motion or rest and offer resistance to any force 
acting on them. It is the fundamental Law of 
all beings and is the primary definition of objec- 
tive existence. Rajas indicates the second property 
of matter, by which we conceive of it as " not only 
that which offers resistence to change of motion, 
but also that which causes change of motion in 
other portions as of matter : it is not only the object 
on which force spends itself, it is the seat of this 
force." (Merz, Hist. Eur. Thought, i. 336.) Rajas, 
therefore, is the Law of Force, embodying the 
Second fundamental property of matter as it 
shows itself to our senses. S a 1 1 v a is the Law of 
equilibrium by which atoms and molecules, p a r a • 
m A ij u s and dvayaQukas, when they are parts 
of objects act and react on each other so as to 
reach equilibrium and to hold together and remain 
as objects. These three properties of matter, or 
g u n a s as the Hindus call them, follow from the fact 

[ 40 ] 

of the existence of material objects. If they have 
to exist at all they must have those gu 9 a s, hence 
they constitute the materiality of matter. They 
<:.onstitute, as it were, three cases of the so-called 
Law of self-preservation. If we try to imagine a 
physical world without one of these three gunas of 
inertia, force and equilibrium we shall find that our 
world will dissolve into thin air before our mental 
vision. Hence they are g u qva s more properly than 
Laws. This explanation of the action of the three 
gunas in the physical world makes them exactly 
the same as Newton's famous three Laws of motion. 
It is being gradually recognised that Newton's 
Laws are not so much Laws of motion as factors 
that make up the concept 'matter'. The first and 
third Laws can scarcely be called Laws of motion. 
The second is as much a Law of motion as of 
matter. They are more properly the fundamental 
properties, g u q a s, of matter, that which dtflferen- 
tiates matter from what is not matter. They define 
matter and indicate the conditions of its manifesta- 
tion. Matter manifests itself while in motion ; that 
Is why they are also called Laws of motion. In 
the earlier days, motion was regarded sometimes as 
anensrationis, S3metimes as a thing in itself, 
because the Cartesian conception of material subs- 
tance as consisting merely in extension was preval- 
ent But we can see *'that matter without motion is 
as inconceivable as matter without extension, so that 

[ 41 ] 

Descartes' assumption that matter was there first as 
an inert lump and motion was put into it afterwards 
is ilUegetimate and irrational" ( Pollock, Spinoza 
his Life and Philosophy^ p. 115). 

These three G u n a s condition mental modifica- 
tions also. Mental events are of three levels, accord- 
ing as cognitions, desires and actions predominate 
in them. In the lowest level, Tamas, Rajas 
and S a 1 1 v a appear automatic action, excited 
action, and deliberative action. In the level of 
desire, the three manifest themselves as all-com'pel- 
Ung desire, the struggle of motives and Vair^gya^ 
or regulated desire. In the level of cognition, 
the three G u n a s operate as ignorance, clouded 
intellect and perfect knowledge. The general tone 
of the mind, under the influence of these g u q a s, 
is indiflference, pain and pleasure. Thus the mind 
is as t r a i g u n y a, conditioned by the three 
g u n a s , as the body. 

Thus we see that the conception of the three 
<ja nas is the widest and most helpful generaliza- 
tion that has been reached by philosophy. It 
embraces within its wide sweep all states of percep- 
tible objects and all states of mind that we know of» 
everything that is mutable, everything that is 
objective to the P u r u s h a, and binds them in one 
general concept, Gunas diflferentiated into the Miree 
conditions of the manifestation of the objective 
Cosmos. The inertia of physical objects, the 

[ 42 ) 

automatism of the mind, its subjection to desire,, 
the failure of its powers of apprehension and in- 
sensibility to pleasure and pain are all comprehend- 
ed under the one word, Tamas. Tamas is literally^ 
* being choked', hence darkness, and sums up in 
one word these characteristics and forms one of 
the conditions of the manifestation of matter*. 
Raj as similarly sums up motion under the cons- 
traint of force, excitement, struggle of desires, wrong 
apprehension and pain. Rajas, literally, the cloudy 
coloured illumination of the intermediate sphere 
between the dark earth and the bright heaven, 
aptly denominates this condition. The common 
factor of equilibrium, balance, self-control, right 
apprehension and pleasure is conceived as Sattva, 
real being. 

These three g u n a s are not qualities of any^ 
substance, but the laws of matter, the modes in 
which matter can manifest itself. Karl Pearson 
defines scientific method to consist in "the careful 
and often laborious classification of facts, in the 
comparison of their relationships and sequences^ 
and finally in the discovery, by the aid of the discip- 
lined imagination, of a brief statement, or f o r m u 1 a,, 
which in a few words resumes a wide range of facts." 
Such aformulaisa scientific law. In this sense,. 
the G u n a s are the fundamental laws of matter. 
The word, law, associated as it is with the idea 
of a Law-giver is a rather unsatisfactory word un-- 

[ 43 1 

less we, as Lotze says, "give up the customaiy view 
according to which the Laws of reality are regarded 
as a self-subsistent power controlling the real and 
actual. They are nothing more than general forms 
of thought in which, a spirit contemplating the 
course of the world and comparing its different 
movements might sum up the whole system of it in 
one brief expression. What is thus briefly ex- 
pressed is the thing realized by and through the 
own nature of things themselves, which are what 
they are and act as they act of themselves, so 
making it possible for us to comprehend their 
behaviour as a case of this or that law. Everything V 
which we regard as a law or ordering of the 
world is just the world's own nature, and it is only 
our Incorrect, though hardly avoidable way of 
looking at things which represents it as a rule se* 
parable therefrom and having already an autho* 
rity from some other source to which this nature 
must submit" ( Philosophy of Religion p. 76 ). In 
other words, the activity of matter found the laws 
and not the laws the activity. The three laws, 
or GuQas, condition the manifestation of matter 
everywhere. What is not matter — P u r u s h a, con- 
sciousness — can alone never be affected by the 
Gu nas, which do not belong to the sphere of the 
immutable A t m d. 

That matter is also subject to Space and 
Time and causality follows from its being atom- 

[ 44 ] 

ic in constitution and Traigu^ya in nature. 
But though the evolution of matter is sub- 
ject to time, matter itself is indestructible. The 
individual Purusha may turn from it and ignore it 
but it ceases not to exist. And when The Lord of 
the Universe withdraws His energies from it its 
evolution is but interrupted, for during P r a 1 a y a, 
matter continues to exist as Asat, Avyakta, 
unmanifested *' as the shoot within the seed" 
( Sankara ). 

(p) The world-history is made up of alternattng 
petiods of activity and rest. 

Matter is in a constant state of flux. The 
largest periodical flux is that of p r a 1 a y a and 
kalpa. Pralaya is the period when matter 
is avyakta, undifferentiated. It cannot then 
be cognized. The G u n a s are in a state of quies- 
cence. Purushas are then also avyakta, un- 
manifest. Kalpa is the period of the manifestation 
of a world, or a system of worlds. Western scholars 
are of opinion that the doctrine of periodical msuni- 
festations and obscurations of the universe did not 
exist in the earliest period of the Veda notwith- 
standing the assertion of Rigveda, V. 190-3, that 
** Brahmal created as before. " But western schol- 
ars are apt to forget that the three Vedas are, after 
all, compilations for purposes of Y a j ft a (sacrifice), 
and were never intended to be religious treatises ; 
for the matter of that, even the Upanishads are 

[ 45 ] 

but manuals of Upisana( meditation ) and reli- 
gious doctrines can, if they appear at all in them, 
do so only by way of allusion. Hence the paucity 
or even the absence of references to any doctrine in 
these books cannot by itself be treated as evidence 
to prove that the doctrine had not been worked out 
by the ancient thinkers. It was just because the 
whole of the Veda — the former and the latter parts, 
the portion of ceremonial work and that of medita- 
tion, was merely a manual of ritualism that m t m ft- 
insas were required to elucidate the theory and 
practice of the rituals. * Therefore there is nothing 
to disprove the traditional view accepted in India 
that the doctrine of periodical dissolution and crea- 
tion belongs to the earliest ages of Indian thought 
Nor is the doctrine so difficult or complicated 
as to pre-suppose a long previous course of philoso- 
phical development. Man naturally works from 
his own constitution to that of the cosmos. In 
the earliest savage times he attributed his own 
thoughts and sentiments to rocks and trees and 
animals around him. So to-day he extends the 
conceptions of force and of energy which he is 
conscious of in his own body to the objects about 
him and thence seeks to explain the cosmos. Just so, 
in olden times he extended the daily alternations 
of activity and sleep of his own body, j ft g r a t a and 
sushupti to the universe and formulated the 
ideas of B r a h m ft 's activity (K a 1 p a) and sleep 

[ 46 ] 

(pralaya). There is nothing specially modern 
in this conception that should compel the historian 
of Hindu thought to assign to it a later age. 

Here it must be noted that the word N i t y a, 
usually translated eternal, means not an illimitable 
future, as is understood in the West. Eternity is 
but time with its boundaries thrown to a great dis* 
tance. just as infinite space, is but limited space, 
but with its bounds thrown far apart. Both phras- 
es are freely used and few realize they are but 
words without any definite meaning behind them. 
On the contrary, Hindu philosophy invariably un- 
derstands by N i t y a, up to the end of this k a 1 p a ; 
a $ 1 o k a of the Matsya Purdna^ says " By 
immortality (a m r i t a t v a) is meant (life) until the 
destruction of all beings (i-e. until Pralaya sets in). 
Immunity from reincarnation is life as long as the 
three lokas last." Indeed it is meaningless to 
extend Time, as we know it, into the state, called 
Pralaya. Time is related to the change of states 
of a perceiving mind and hence cannot exist, when 
the minds themselves are no more. The Hindu phi- 
losophy divides Kclla (Time) into two classes, 
Khan^a, and Akhanda, discrete and continu- 
ous. The former alone, is time as we know it. The 
latter, duration, independent of change of states 
of mind, we can scarcely understand, since it 
transcends human experience. Mait. Up, vi. 15. 
says:—" There are two forms of Brahma, K ft 1 a and 

[ 47 1 

A k a 1 a, Time and No-Time. That which is before 
the Sun is Ak&la, devoid of parts ; and that which 
is subsequent to the Sun is Time, with parts." It 
is in this sense of A k h a n 4 a, that k&la is hymned 
as the source and ruler of all things ip Atharva 
Veda xix. 53, 54. and that Kpshna speaking as 
the Is vara, says in the Bhag. Gtta xi. 32, 
"Time am I, the destroyer of the worlds." 

[10.) The subtle elements that make up all 
objects are five corresponding to the five senses. 

The subtle elements, sClksh ma bhQta, are con- 
ceived as elementary sensations. Thus smell, taste, 
light, touch and sound exist in a rudimentary, 
ethereal form outside man and also in his sensori- 
um. They are called in many schools, tanmdtra, 
lit., that alone, the pure root of sensation. Corres- 
ponding to the five senses, there are five t a n m ft - 
tras which by their combinations produce the 
sthi^la bhilta, the objects of the world. 

Western Science explains " the ultimate 
element of material constitution to be an electric 
charge or nucleus of permanent aethereal strain". 
"Each sub-atom with its permanent electric 
charge must be surrounded by a field of permanent 
or intrinsic aethereal strain, which implies elastic 
quality in theaethereal instead of complete fluidity ; 
the portion must therefore be in whole or in part 
a nucleus of intrinsic strain in the aether, a place 
at which the continuity of the medium has been 

[ 48 ) 

broken and cemented together again (to use a 
crude but effective image) without accurately fitting 
the parts, so that there is a residual strain all 
round the place" ("Larmor, JEther and Matter^ 
pp. 26. 27). 

Thus have Western Scientists, with extraordinary 
experimental and mathematical skill, framed a 
picture of Akasa, iEther, modified to serve as 
the basis of light vibrations. Clerk Maxwell 
proved light and electricity to be identical, and 
hence the iSthereal strain charged with electricity 
is explained as the particular structure that helps 
us to imagine what corresponds to Rdpatan- 
m & t r a or rudimentary light. But no Western 
Scientist has as yet started the question of what are 
smell, taste and touch. Are they also strains in the 
iEther and if they are, what kinds of strains? 
Most Hindu schools say that they also are modifi- 
cations of Akd$a, tanmfttras, roots of sensation, 
the Vai$eshikas only regarding them, as well as 
light, to be qualities and not modification, of atoms. 
Thus four different kinds of strains in iEther would 
be required to explain the roots of these four sensa- 
tions. Then there is sound, which Hindu Phi- 
losophy conceives as a quality or modification of 
the unstrained, unmodified, non-atomic Akft$a. 
Modern Science explains sound to be vibrations 
of air. The Hindu idea is that behind the air 
vibrations there is a modification of A.k&$a, not 


49 ) 

of the kind that constitutes an atom, and this is the 
basis of sound. There is nothing inherently 
improbable in this idea that the five sensations 
are five different modifications of iEther. Outside 
the human body they exist inaT&masaor resist- 
ing form and constitute the elements of the Uni* 
terse. Inside the sense-organs the same iEtheieal 
modifications exist in their S & t v i k a, equilibrated 
form and hence the man perceives them as sensa- 
tions. Western Science pictures the external 
causes of the various sensations as modes of vibra- 
tion. This has led to the insoluble problem, how 
can a vibration outside the body become a sensa- 
tion after it impinges on a nerve. To conceive of 
light or sound as vibrations as the physicist does^ 
helps him to investigate their properties, but from 
thence to assert that the vibration is a fact, a 
noumenon, a reality independent of our thought, 
and that the sensation is a phenomenal representa- 
tion of this fact by consciousness to itself is 
absolutely unphilosophical. For vibration is but a 
concept of the mind manufactured from experience 
of the motion of our bodies and itself but a 
phenomenal representation. It is equally unphiloso- 
phical to talk of Consciousness responding to 
vibrations in the forms of sensations. This is (in the 
words of the Yoga SHiras) a v i k a I p a, a form of 
words without any fact corresponding to them 
(i* 90 The only idea we can attach to conscious* 

( so ) 

ness is, as Hindu Philosophy points out, that of 
'enlightener, what manifests or illumines that 
whose existence would otherwise be unmanifest. 
To speak of consciousness as responding to vibra- 
tion is to attribute activity to that which cannot 
be conceived as acting. It is not an active agent, a 
manipulator of vibration into a sensation, a d 6 u s 
•ex machina that mysteriously changes a vibra- 
tion, a harmonious displacement of molecules of 
matter into a taste, a smell, etc. Such an explan- 
ation is metaphysics in the worst sense of the word 
— the use of language to conceal ignorance and not 
to clarify thought. Consciousness can enlighten, 
render conscious, make the man know what would 
otherwise be unconscious sensation, unknown to 
him, but it is impossible to imagine how it can 
respond to, t. ^., change itself, in the form of 
a sensation, when a vibration falls on it. The 
physical explanation of sensation that ''sound 
light, heat, electricity and even the nervous in- 
flux " is due to " vibratory movements, varying only 
by their direction and their periods'' is, as Btnet 
lucidly points out, ''but an artifice, a symbol or 
a process convenient for classification in order 
to combine the very different qualities of things 
in one unifying synthesis — a process having the 
same theoretical value asamemoria techn ica, 
which, by substituting letters for figures, helps us 
to retain the latter in our minds. This does not 

( 51 ) 

mean that figures are, in fact, letters, but it is a 
convenient substitution which has a practical ad- 
vantage *' {The Mind and the Brainy p. 33). Mottoa 
is not less of a phenomenon, more of a reality 
than the five sensations, but is more easily capable 
of measurement. Otherwise the physicist can con- 
•ceivably explain all sensations and motions, 1. e. 
all phenomena in terms of form, or, as the Hindu 
mystic does, in terms of sound. From a philoso- 
phical standpoint it is a mere accident that our 
visual and muscular sensations seem to have acqu- 
ired such a supreme importance that we invent 
theories explaining other sensations by imaginary 
visual and muscular events. But it is as valid 
to explain a sound as a vibration, as to explain a 
motion as a sound. " To measure the length of 
a body instead of applying to it a yard wand, 
one might listen to its sound ; for the pitch of the 
sound given by two cords allows us to deduce 
their difference of length, and even the absolute 
length of each," (^ lb. p. 4. ) Thus all scientific 
theories may be reconstructed in terms of auditory 
•events, and sound held to be the parent of all ma- 
terial form; and we may understand why the Hin^u 
calls sound ( n ft d a ), the first manifestation of 
the unmanifested. Hence the idea that vibration 
is an ultimate fact and sensations are its pheno- 
menal forms, though it underlies all modem 
European thought, is philosophically absurd. 

( 52 ) 

Moreover to say that a vibration affects cons* 
ciousness is to attribute mutability to that which is> 
immutable. The Hindu explanation is at least 
intelligible. Sensation is the same outside the 
body as it is inside the body. But inside the body 
it is illuminated by the conscious subject, who is 
then said to *' know ", and till it is known it is 
what we may call ** unconscious sensation." Sen- 
sation exists outside the body as sensation and 
the five sensations by their combination constitute 
the objects of the world. It is in this sense that 
they are the five elements of the world. Hence- 
also is the world perceptible by a mind. Thus 
sound inside the auditorium or in the universe, is 
but a special modification of A k ft $ a. The perceiv- 
ing organ of audition and the perceived object,, 
sound, are of the same nature, both beings 
AkftsaorSabdatanmfttra, pure sensation of 
sound ; only A k & $ a outside the body is not pure,, 
unmixed, like the one in the organ of hearing, but 
compounded with air, etc., and hence the S a b d a> 
(the essence of sound) in the external A k a$a be- 
fore it can reach the hearer must first be manifested 
as nftda ordhvani, or vibrations of air. As* 
a commentator on Jaimini's Mtmdmsa SUtras, r., 
13, says, "the still atmosphere which interferes 
with the perception of sound, is removed by the 
conjunctions and disjunctions of air (undulations, 
vfcht-taranga) issuing from the speaker's 

( 53 ) 

4nouth and thus sound becomes perceptible. " Simi-^ 
larly in the case of the other senses cognition is 
rendered possible by the fact that the same subs- 
tance exists inside the sense-organ as in the out- 
side world. These are the five elements, so much 
misunderstood and. hence ridiculed. This Hindu 
view of the existence of five tanmfttras or five 
elements or five modifications of iCther to ac- 
-count for the five sensations and five s e n s i b i I i a 
is not as all opposed to reason or to modern 
ways of thought. 

//. AU energy in the Universe is personal^ i. e, 
bound up with consciousness, though o^ varying 
degrees of intensity. 

Besides consciousness and unconscious matter, * 
the great generalization made from the phenomena 
of the universe is Energy. Energy is the link 
between these two. The only manifestation of 
-•energy of which we have first hand knowledge is 
the energy we expend in re-acting on the objects 
•around us by changing their position or conditions. 
Hence when we observe bodies altering shape or 
position, we infer that some energy has been acting 
on them. That the manifestation of energy in 
the world other than by animals is not accompa- 
'nied by any degree of consciousness is what is 
called the mechanical view of the world, and this 
view dominates modern thought. The opposite view, 
•that all manifestation of energy in the universe 

( 54 ) 

proceeds from conscious beings, visible or invisible, 
is the animistic theory of the cosmos, the a d h i d ai- 
vat a explanation of it accepted by all Indian 
schools of philosophy. Of these theories the a d h i- 
daivata theory is certainly the more plausible,, 
for the conscious exertion of energy by us is a 
concrete reality of our lives, whereas the idea oF 
energy unaccompanied by consciousness is only- 
an abstraction from our experience. The mechani- 
cal theory, like Euclid's theory of space, has been- 
a concept of much assistance in understanding the 
cosmos, but neither theory is a percept of the- 
world of experience. The extraordinary growth 
of modern science inspired by the mechanical 
explanation of the universe has made people forget 
that it is an abstraction and not a reality of 
conscious experience. 

Of this trio. Consciousness, Energy and Matter,, 
one view isolates Consciousness as Real Being and 
regards Matter and Energy as being p r a k r i t i or 
object This is the view of the Bhagavadgitd, vii. 4 — 
6:-*My atomic Prak|:iti eightfold, is Earth, 
Water, Fire, Akftsa, Manas, Buddhi and 
Ahamkdra, This is the lower ; learn now, O* 
mighty armed, my P r a k y i t i, higher than this,, 
that which becomes living ( J ! v a ) and by which 
the Universe is upheld. Know that these two are- 
the wombs of all beings." Another view isolates^ 
P r a k f i t i, and regards consciousness and S a k t v 

( 55 ) 

or Energy, often personified as Ambikft, the 
worid-mother, as the chief factor of the cosmos. As 
the opening stanza of Anandalahari says '*Si va 
can create only when united with § a k t i." This is 
the §Akta view that has affected later Hindu 
thought so much. The view that modern science 
has evolved, which makes Nature, that is, Matter 
moved by Energy, the reality behind the Universe 
to the entire exclusion or neglect of Consciousness is 
nowhere represented in Hindu thought; for all 
Hindu Philosophy is animistic Even the Sankhya, 
Yoga, Purvamtmftmsa and Vai$eshika 
SAtras, which ignore a Supreme Real Being — P a r a- 
b r a h m a or even a moral Governor of the Universe, 
accept this scheme of the Adhidaivata hierarchies, 
troops of gods (d e V a s and a s u r a s) that inhere in 
nature and cause its operations. These gods are, some 
of them at least, not spiritually or morally higher 
than man ; for man is the microcosm in whonn all 
the elements of the cosmos exist Himself is the 
Purusha; his mind, sense organs and action 
organs represent the various d e va s, and his bodies 
represent the subtle and the differentiated elements. 
Hence the Universe is represented in him in 
miniature. But the gods, though the field of their 
operations is much larger, »re parts of the 
macrocosm. They have each one element to deal 
with and one kind of organ to control it by ; nor 
are many of them capable of the high moral and 

( 56 ) 

intellectual advancement that man can attain to. 
The animistic theory prevails in crude forms 
among the savage races of the world. Hence the 
West regards it as a theory fit only for savages^ 
but the true philosopher does not estimate the 
value of philosophical theories from feelings of 
racial superiority. The modern impatience with 
animism is but a phase of the materialism that has 
pbsessed the Western mind ; and surely an idea- 
listic savage may have better intuitions than one 
who is the flower of modern civih'sation but blight- 
ed by the canker of materialism. The prejudice 
against animism is, like the prejudice against 
determinism, due to a feeling that the conduct of 
conscious beings must be capricious irreducible to 
fixed laws. 

But conduct of man or of nature^ depending as it 
does on mind and body, takes place always accord- 
ing to fixed laws. The informing consciousness 
that accompanies it either in the human body or 
in Nature has no power to make it fitful or un- 
amenable to the eternal Laws of matter. Hence 
the unerring mechanism of Nature's operations is 
quite compatible with its being enlightened by the 
conciousness of the gods. 

The name animism is an unfortunate one sug- 
gesting as it does, totemism and similar associa- 
tions. But the theory that personality of various 
kinds or degrees underlies all operations of Nature 

( 57 ) 

is not at all crude. Many of the greatest think- 
ers of the world have accepted and expounded it» 
5ome admitting one Personal God, and others 
assuming many personal beings, calling them Gods^ 
Angels. Powers, Devas, Asuras, etc. Materialism 
alone opposes it. 

Leibniz, who shared with Newton the honour of 
presiding at the birth of modern scientific thought, 
perceived the danger of that thought lapsing into 
a forgetfulness of the intelligence behind nature 
and vigorously protested against it. In section 19 
of his Metaphysics he acknowledges the validity of 
the mechanical explanation of nature so far as it 
goes, but adds that to neglect totally the intelligence 
behind nature would be '^ as if, in order to account 
for the capture of an important place by a prince, the 
historian should say it was caused by the particles 
of powder in the cannon having been touched by a 
spark of fire expanded with a rapidity capable of 
pushing a hard, solid body against the walls of the 
place, while the little particles, which compose the 
brass of the cannon, were so well interlaced that 
they did not separate under this impact, — as if he 
-should account for it in this way instead of making 
us see how the foresight of the conqueror brought 
him to choose the time and proper means, and how 
his ability surmounted all obstacles " (/*. p. 35). 
Leibniz uses this argument to establish the intel- 
ligence of the one God behind nature, but it does 

( 58 ) 

not affect the argument if to that one supreme 
intelh'gence be added many subordinate intelligen- 
ces. Animism, then, is not so terribly primitive a 
conception as it is said to be. 

12, This energy is Prdfta^ which is inUr- 
mediate between spirit and matter. 

Western science conceives all forms of energy 
as motion, molar or molecular. We must remem- 
ber that this picture of energy of all forms as 
motion is not a reality independent of our mind. 
It is a concept formed by us to help our halting 
thought to deal with the various physical pheno* 
mena which we desire to bind into one notion, and 
is not necessarily true outside the world of ideas. 
Hindu philosophy regards P r ft n a and not motion 
as the fundamental energy of the cosmos. P r ft n a 
is conceived as a power coming from or started hy 
the Purusha and acting on matter. This concep- 
tion of P r ft n a as power charged with conscious- 
ness which manifests itself as energy when it acts 
on matter and thus becomes visible outside the 
Purusha is a necessary corollary of the A d h i- 
d a i V a t a explanation of the world. 

TheSfthkhya cannot admit that Prftna 
can start from the Purusha. The utmost that this 
school and the allied school of Yoga would allow 
is that Prftna starts into activity in matter when 
there is a union of Purusha and P r a k |p i t i. 

If nature-powers (Devas) exist behind 

( 59 ) 

nature all her energy must ultimately be im- 
material in origin. The energy exerted by an 
animal or a man is primarily nervous energy^ 
All the energy of animals is nervous energy till 
it leaves the muscles and acts on outside objects. 
This nervous energy is called Prftna. Western 
Science has for a hundred years unsuccessfully 
tried to explain nervous energy as a form of 
mechanical motion ; Eastern Philosophy reverses 
the process and derives mechanical motion from 
P r ft n a, or energy accompanied by consciousness. 

P r A n a, corresponds to the Psychikon 
p n e u m a, animal spirits, of Greek philosophy, a 
category which is intermediate between spirit and 
matter, and brings them into relation with each 
other. Matter is ever changing, always in a state of 
flux. Purushais immutable. He reflected, ** What 
is it by whose departure I shall depart (from the 
body ), by establishing whom (in it ) I shall 
remain established (in it)? He emitted Pr^na"^ 
(JPras. Up. VL3'4) as bis empirical represen- 
tative. Matter is atomic and unconscious ; P r ft 9 a 
is continuous, that is, not discrete, and charged, as 
it were, with the consciousness of the P u r u s h a. 
P u r u s h a being above space, cannot himself move 
or be the direct cause of motion in matter. P r ft n a 
is spoken oi as V ft y u or air, for air is the best 
symbol of an immaterial something which is the 
cause of motion, but is not at the same time pure 

( 60 ) 

spirit Th€ energy of the Universe is but the F r & ^ a 
of cosmic beings. Prft^ais Sakti regarded 
as a material fact and not as conscious somebody* 
Being an intermediate category between A t m & and 
matter it partakes of the nature of both. It is 
capable of more or less, like matter, and is at the 
same time accompanied by consciousness. It 
connects as a bridge Atm& and matter whose 
characteristics are so opposed to each other that 
to speak of their union or their interaction will 
be as absurd as to say that linear magnitude is 
mixed with whiteness. Students of European 
philosophy are familiar with the difficulties of the 
<:onnection of body and mind. This intermediate 
category solves all such difficulties. 

This doctrine of Universal P r A ^ a is developed 
in the Upanishad and Agama literature and not 
fully worked out in the other D a r 9 a n a s. It is not 
incompatible with their special points of view, but 
is not discussed by them because the Dar^anas 
concern themselves witji the discipline that 
they advocate, and do not refer to theories not 
immediately connected with the special mental 
training they prescribe. 

13. The Law of causation — Karma — is 
supreme in the physical and mental worlds. 

The Law of Karma is the supreme law under 
which the manifested Universe works. The 
binding nature of the relation of cause and effect 

( 6i ) 

is part of the conception of the P r a k ^ i t i. Both 
the physical and mental worlds being evolved from 
matter come under this Law. All beings that 
possess bodies, even if it be the highest being 
incarnated cannot be independent of this Law. 
The free spirit that has reached the self-realization, 
is alone above it, for spirit being immutable is 
** free ". The fundamental idea of the Law of Karma 
is this. Every mental or physical process, every 
thought, desire, or force exerted on bodies is 
followed by a consequence which when not imme- 
diately visible, is called ApClrva, Adrishta, 
whose nearest English equivalent is " potential 
energy," which manifests itself when suitable con^ 
ditions arise. 

" The experiences of the seeti (physical world) 
^d the unseen ( subtle worlds ) have their resting 
place in Karma and their root in Kle$a (the afflic- 
tions of ignorance, egoism, etc.) ; as^ long as the root 
exists it fructifies as birth ( in human or non-human 
bodies), life { therein ) , and experiences ( pleasur- 
able or painful). They lead to joy or grief 
according as they originate in good or evil" (Yoga 
Silt, ii. 1 2-14). Every experience isaSamskdra, 
a modification of the subtle body^ which has^ 
a tendency to reproduce itself ; and every man 
is " bound " by the SamskAras. They form the 
atmosphere which must influence the course of his 
thoughts, desires, and deeds in the present. It is not 

( 62 ) 

every one of the Samsk&ras that can operate 
every minute of his life. For potential energy can 
become kinetic only when the proper conditions 
present themselves. That portion of a man's past 
that is operative in influencing a man's mind and 
the course of his experiences during an incarnation 
is called prArabdha(lit: begun to act ). Those 
that yet lie deep within the inner recesses of his 
1 i fi g a d e h a and have not yet begun to manifest 
themselves during an incarnation are called 
s a m c h i t a (accumulated), while every present act, 
every present thought, every present desire becomes 
stored in his subtle body as ag&mi (augmenta- 
tive), which goes to enrich bis atmopshere of 
Karma and will react on him in the future. 

The present course of a man's life, the circum- 
stances in which he finds himself, the pleasures and 
pains that will reach him, the thoughts and desires 
that will rise in his mind and the actions that he 
will be constrained to do, all depend upon p r <k- 
r a b d h a. The Law of Karma* reigns supreme in 
the mental and physical worlds. 

Hence all schools of Hindu philosophy are rigid- 

* An of t qaoted sloka shows the use of Karma as one of 
the names of the aniversal caase against which use soine scholars 
haye protested . " He, whom S a i t a a worship asSiya, Ved&n- 
tisasBrahma, Buddhists as Buddha, theKaiy&ikas skilled 
in proof, as the Creator, those that delight in the J a i n a scrip- 
tores as Arhan, the Mimftqisakasas Karma, may he, Hari, 
the Lord of the three worldj, giye as the fruits of oar deiiiM. 

( 63 ) 

\y deterministic. Man is not free but bound by v 
his past conduct, is absolutely determined by the 
desires that operate on the mind and the prA- 
rabd h a determines what desires should rise under 
any given combination of circumstances. Desires, 
actions, even the mind, being all material processes^ 
the supreme Law of matter — the Law of causation 
— inviolably constrains man. Even the m u k t a, 
the liberated man must experience his pr&rab 
dha Karma. 

(14) Samsata^ the course of Karma ^ is anddi^ 
had no beginning. 

Karma, the sum total of causes, that remains 
potential during a period of p r a 1 a y a and 
manifests at the beginning of a world-period 
(Kalpa) is described as An^di, beginningless. 
AnAdi is deBned in the Hindu books to be 
'"like a flowing stream whose origin beyond the 
circle of vision is unknown." In tracing events to 
their causes we can push back our inquiries up to 
the point when the present world manifestation 
began. Beyond that point, it will neither be possi- 
ble nor profitable to trace the current of causes. 
It is unphilosophical to assume that these currents 
must have started at some past point of time, for 
there are no grounds for such assumption. We 
know that matter is in constant flux under the 
Law of causation; but cannot think that there 
was a period when there was no such flux If it 

( 64 ) 

did not exist at some past point of time it could 
not at all have been originated. Hence the course 
of Karma is A n A d i, has always existed. 

So too, MAIaprakfiti, causal matter, whether 
it be the non-existent Nescience of the A d v a i t a, 
or the germ of objectivity of the other schools. The 
individual spirits (j ! v IL t m d) too are A n & d i, for if 
they did not exist at any time no cause could have 
arisen to bring them into being. The Brl^hma^as 
and the Upanishads very frequently speak of a 
beginning — A g r a. This Agra always means, be- 
fore the present Kalpa — world- period — and no 
more. An&di does not mean eternal. Hindu 
books speak of two kinds of beginninglessness, (l) 
Ajanyatva ri^paan^ditva, beginningless- 
ness of the kind of never having been born. This 
belongs only to Absolute Being. (2) Praviha 
anftditva, the beginninglessness of a flood,, 
above explained. All Hindu speculations about 
Nityatva, enternity, ought to be understood 
only in the second sense; thus the Nitya muk- 
t a s, eternally free beings, of the R&m&nujt 
y a s are those who were * free ' at the beginning 
of this Kalpa and the Nityan&rakikas the 
eternally damned, of the M&dhvas are those 
who will remain " bound " at the end of this Kalpa. 

(75) Moksha is the goal of human life and 
results ffom the training of the mind and hence 
reaching Moksha is a mental event. 

( 65 ) 

All fauman beings are b a d d h a, b o u n d, by the 
coarse of karma, the causes they have set going, 
also by the laws of the matter that constitutes their 
minds and bodies. The object of philosophy is 
to teach them to escape this bondage and to lead 
a life uninterrupted by compulsory incarnations. 
When this is transcended, man is m u k t a, emanci- 
pated. So long as the conscious spirit does not 
realise its nature and identifies itself with its body 
or its mind, it is not free. So long as the man's 
life is but the life of the material body and the 
material mind, which act according to fixed laws, 
all life is bondage. 

What, then, is m o k s h a, the state of freedom ta 
attain which is the true goal of human life ? The 
constant unbroken recognition of the difference be- 
tween the nature of spirit and of matter, the know- 
ledge that the operations of mind are foreign to,, 
outside of, the real man, the consequent freedom of 
the spirit from involution into psychic life, and the 
perfection to which man may bring his mind by 
knowing the laws of its working. In the physical 
universe the modern scientific man conquers nature 
by obeying and utilizing its laws; the same the 
m u k t a does in the psychical world. The training 
for m o k s h a therefore is a process of knowledge, a 
process of "discrimination of Purusha from Prakfiti 
AtmA from Anatml" As the Samsknt aphorism 
has it, " Jiian4devatu kaivalyam," liberation is 

thf ough kniDrwtedge AloneA One necessary concomi- 
tant of the reultacation of mart's true nature as a 
spirttual being is^ **deatMessn«fisi " For when he 
kilow^ hiitiself to be not) ' his body but the 
ioimutable A t m d[» ^* the Lord of death runs away" 
from him,, for the Lord of death, has* control over 
bodies alone and not: over die eternal Atm4. 
Another concomitant of the discrimination of 
man's red being* from- the unlreal phenbrnenai forms 
of matter' IS the-ce^sation of pain (d u h k h a, k 1 e 8 a, 
tftpa.) Pleasure andr pain and are but interpreta- 
tions by B i] d d h i of incidents of the flow 6f P r & 9 a 
in the subtle bodies. Hence when the splirit, after 
his longf weary pilgrimage, knows himself to be other 
thaii the subtle body or the mind, he fetls ' pleasure 
and pain to be oiitside him. Life is no more a 
ceasetess storm d desiires tossing the heiplests mind 
about ; the king pilgrimage' of man is oxer ; no 
moce undfiir thesjway of something external to him, 
but self^ruled, s^lf-determined; he reaches supreme 
peacei .-'■•.■ 

Tfadsjdiscusstbn of the common poilitsioC all the 
Bindu D»is9a)n a sv however brief, shows that they 
are practicaMy agreed in regard to all vital 
questions regaiiding' the* constitution of ma^i^ the 
eonstlttttionof Che cosmos, and theithes of the past 
and the futorfe/ evoiuddn of humanity. It is im^ 
possibleto p6int out isuth a surprising* uriani^l^ 
among the sects of any other reHgt6tt,or tihe schools 

( ^7 ) 

of philosophy of any other nation in the world. 
Hence it is that neither the extraordinary com- 
plexity of the subdivisions of sects that so distract 
the inquirer, nor the great changes of ritual and 
external manifestations of religion that the Hindu 
D h a r m a has undergone during the many thou- 
sands of years it has swayed the lives of the Indian 
peoples, nor again the impacts of the diverse foreign 
cults that have at various times assailed it, have 
at all impaired its vitality, but have only helped 
to show that it rests on the bed rock of truth, and 
will continue to prevail in the distant future when 
many modern philosophies will have been forgotten. 




,VER Since man began to think about the 
relations between himself and the world 
about him and to distinguish the hosts of 
passing phenomenal forms from the possible per- 
manent nonmenon of which these forms may be 
temporary modifications, he has followed twa 
different and opposed tendencies of thought, which 
may be called individualistic and monistic. 

The first tendency is inspired by the ineffaceable 
sense of continuous personal existence which men 
feel and which refuses to be abolished under any 
circumstances. The other is the equally potent 
intuition which men have of the unity of all things, 
of the oneness of the life that pulsates in all beings. 
Hence philosophy has grown in two directions — 
two opposing theories have been advocated by 
thinkers — one in which the individual man is de- 
clared a real permanent factor of the cosmos, the 
other in which the manifold world is conceived as 
aspects of one Reality — whether that reality be a 
conscious Brahma, or unintelligent Nature. These 
latter theories are rightly called monistic ; but the 

( 69 ) 

name dualism usually applied to the former is 
scarcely accurate, for they recognise, not two, 
but at least as many real Beings as there are 
human individuals, besides the real substances 
behind nature. Hence the name individualistic 
or pluralistic seems to be a more correct designa- 
tion of these theories. 

Kfishna, in the Bhagavad Gtta, ii. 3, divides men 
into two classes — Sfthkhyas and Yogis, those fit 
for J a flL n a yoga and those fit for Karma yoga.* 
To the former, meditation on the Self appeals ; 
the latter prefer a life of action, one of loving 
service of the Lord of the Universe, or of some 
monistic abstraction, like the humanity of the 
Positivists. This difference between these two 
classes of men seems to be due to the preponder- 
ance of the representative or the affective ele- 
ments of psychic life, of Intellect' or of *wiir as 
Schopenhauer calls them. 'Mf the normal man is 
made up of two-thirds will and one-third intellect, 
the man of genius consists of two-thirds intellect and 
one third 'will' (Schop. ''On the Primacy of the Will. 
Quot by Ribot. Psych, of Emot.^ page, 390). The 
names Sl^fikhyas and Yogis given above to these 
two classes of men have nothing to do with the 

The words Sftnkhya yoga and Earma yoga as used by Krishna 
are generally misanderstood. The former not only meani 
intellectnal discipline, but also includes the Yoga of Patafijali : 
whereas the latter includes what are understood as the religion, 
of humanity and as theism in Bur ope. 

( 70 ) 

Schools of Philosophy, so called, but only imply 
that the former are inclined to the discipline of 
Contemplation and the latter to that of Effort; 
abstract thought attracts the former, concrete 
images the latter. In India, as in other countries^ 
both kinds of philosophical theories have been 
expounded and vigorously upheld by their fol- 
lowers ; those called Vai$eshika, Nydya, S^hkhya 
and Yoga are individualistic : whereas those schools 
of thought which are derived from the Upanishads 
and Agamas are directly or indirectly monistic. 
In this and the succeeding chapters the different 
metaphysical, cosmological and psychological 
theories of these schools as propounded in their 
earliest available expositions wil| be discussed. In 
later jlndian philosophy, the doctrines of the 
sharply distinguished lines of thought of the svx. 
Dar$anas have been mixed up. Hence, the original 
SAtr^LS or K&rikas will be quoted as far as possi- 
ble, and the commentaries will be, as a rule, avoided, 
for they were made by later thinkers who mixed 
up the ideas of the different schools, partly be- 
cause in their days, the VedAnta came to be 
regarded as the final truth, and partly because the 
absence of a historical spirit made it impossible 
for them to expound accurately the ideas of 
schools which were widely divergent from their 
point of view. 

Metaphysics attempts to answer the question : — 

( 71 ) 

what js the ultimate xfiiilily.beWnd the changing 
phenomena of the Cdsra^Ds ? Pbenoiaaenon means 
showing, n A m a r p a^n^meavyd .form^ and pre*sup- 
poses a noumenon, or * thingias such/' which «hows 
itself as phenomena. How many ^noumena are 
necessary to explain the Cosmos, and what Is the 
essential nature of each 'n<«Mnenort aw the ftinda- 
mental problems of metaphysics; and these' have 
been solved variously in India as in the West. 

The VedAnta* believed tb^ ultimate indepen- 
dent Reality to be One — P a r a rrl- B r a h m aj 
The SAnkhya arid the Vogia schools postt two 
noumena, P u r u s h a and P r a k f i t i , to produdie 
the Cosmos. The schools of the Vaishnavas and the 
§aivas postulate thetattvatray a-three ultimate 
realities, the Lord, the individual and the uncons- 
cious ( matter ). The Siktas also admit thre^, which 
they conceive as the absolute consditiustiess, the 
active consciousness and matter. The Nyiya arid 
Vaiseshika schools predicate nb^ less thati nine 
ultimate dravyas ( substances ) which tinite to 
produce the manifested worlds. We' shall briefly 
discuss the metaphyical theories of each bf these 

• It is unfortunate that the word Ve^JApta «q^ap3 (^idOEejeat 
things to difiereut Indians. In this book it is invariably us^ to 
mean the doctrines of the UpanuhadSt the Bkagacad trttd 
and the Siltras irrespective of the sectarian dilterett'ces foetid 
in the Bhibshyas. 

( 72 ) 

Section I. Veddnta. 
The Veddnta teaches that there is but one 
Reality behind the world of matter and of individual 
beings and that is ParamBrahma. The earliest 
attempt to describe *the Supreme Being, the one 
Reality that underlies what we call spirit and what 
we call matter is the well-known Ndsadtfa SUkla, • 
Rig' Veda X i2g. *' Then Asat ( proto-matter ) did 
not exist. Sat ( manifested being ) did not exist 
There was no air nor sky above. What enveloped 
( all ) ? Where, in whose protection ? Was it water, 
the profound darkness? Death was not, nor 
immortality. There was no differentiation of night 
or day. That one breathed without breath, self- 
supported. There was nothing different from or 
above it. In the beginning darkness existed, 
enveloped by darkness. Undifferentiated was all 
this. That one which lay void wrapped in Nothing- 
ness was developed by the power of meditation." 
This is a description of the one Reality during the 
period of world-repose — P r a 1 a y a • Now follows a 
description of the same during the world-activity, 
K a 1 p a . "I will propound to you the J fi e y a m 
( that which is to be known ) knowing which one 
tastes deathlessness, the Supreme B r ah m a . It . 
is called not Sat and not Asat. It has hands 
and feet in every direction, eyes, heads, and mouths 
on all sides, ears everywhere. It stands enveloping 
all things in the world. Devoid of all organs, it 

( 73 ) 

shines with the fuactions of all organs. It is unat- 
tached, yet the supporter of all. Without G u q a s , 
yet enjoyer of G unas. It is without and within 
all beings. It is movable and withal immovable. It 
is unknowable on account of its subtleness. It is 
far and near. Indivisible, yet dwelling amidst beings 
as if divided. It is to be known as the supporter 
of all beings, their devourer and generator. It is the 
Light of Lights, is said to be beyond Darkness. 
This j fi e y a m is consciousness seated in the hearts 
of all, and is to be reached by consciousness" {Bhag. 
Gitd.xiiu 12 — 17). "Root above, branch below, 
Aavattha they call it, indestructible, whose leaves 
are hymns ; who knows it is the knower of V e d a. 
Downwards and upwards spread forth its branch- 
es, nurtured by the G u n a s, the sense-objects its 
twigs. Downward its roots stretch, the bonds of 
action in the world of men. Its form is not here 
Ijjsheld, nor its end, nor the beginning, nor its 
foundation. This A?vattha of well grown roots 
with the strong weapon of dis-passion having cut 
down, then the path has to be trodden, which hav- 
ing reached, no one returns. I follow indeed that 
primal P u r u s h a whence has streamed forth the 
ancient energy " ( Ib.XV, 1-4). 

Heis not Asat (the root of matter) for ** There 
is no other seer than He, there is no other hearer 
than He, there is no other perceiver than He, there 
is no other knower than He. In that A k s h a r a 

( 74 ) 

(imperishable), then, O GArgf, the A k ft 9 a is woven^ 
like warp and woof" ( Brih. Up. II. viii.-ii). He is 
not Sat (manifested being), for ** That, verily, O 
GArg!, the Brfthmanas call A k s h a r a, not gross, not 
minute, not short, not long, not red, not fluid, with- 
out shadow, not dark, without air, without A k ft $ a, 
not attached, without taste, or smell, without ears 
or eyes, without speech, without m a n a s, without 
seed, without P r ft n a, without mouth, without mea- 
sure, having no inside or outside, it does not con- 
sume any thing, nothing does consume it," {lb. III, 
vtii, 8.) He is above the three limitaLions ot space. 
time and^cau^ality (D es ak ft 1 a n i m i 1 1 a). "This 
Brahma has no earlier or later, no inside or outside"^ 
{lb, II, V. ip), " Beyond good, beyond evil, beyond 
what is made, beyond what is not made, beyond 
what has been, beyond what shall be" {Kath, Up, ii- 
/^). This Supreme Being is creator in the sense that 
he emitted matter and then entered it as its souU 
** He wished, may I be many, may I propagate. He 
meditated. After he meditated, he emitted all this, 
whatever there is. Having emitted it, He entered 
it. Having entered it he became Sat (Being) and 
Ty at (? Non-Being), defined and undefined, sup- 
ported and unsupported, consciousness and uncon- 
sciousness, reality and unreality. The Reality be- 
came all this whatsoever. That is Truth, they 
say" {Tait Up, 11 6). 

P a r a m B r a h m a, the one Reality is thus the 

( 75 ) 

one behind unconscious matter, the one behind all 
purushas (conscious beings). He is the immutable 
Being underlying the various manifestations of con- 
scious lives due to the union of innumerable puru- 
shas with forms of matter. Unlike them, he is theX^ 
Enjoyer without means of enjoyment, the Seer 
without an organ of vision, the Actor without or- 
gans of action. He is the source of the Energy 
that plays in the Universe. He is the matter of 
which the worlds are made, as well as the maker 
of these worlds. He is the Inspirer of all actions 
of all beings and yet the Dispenser of the fruits of 
those actions. 

The Vedftnta SOtrasof BAdarAyana were 
intended as a Mtmdmsa, an exegesis, embodying the 
principles of interpretation to be applied to the Upa-^ 
nishads. These latter being manuals of medita- 
tion, Bl^dardya^a proposes to teach by his S Q t r a s 
how the various symbols and words used by the 
^ishis have to be interpreted, and how meditation 
is to be practised. The Vedftnta Siitras do not 
primarily constitute a manual of philosophy so much 
as a manual of exegesis. Incidentally, Bddar^yana 
attacks the other disciplines prevalent in his days,, 
like the Sdhhkya, the Vaiseshika^ the Bauddha^ 
the Bhdgavata, the Pd^upatUy etc. and proves their 
philosophical implications to be opposed to the 
revealed Sruti and to reason. In philosophical 
U5sicri which is io common in India, solitary sen- 

( 7(> ) 

tences of the Upanishads or the Sfitras of 
the Vttara Mtmdmsa embodying philosophical 
doctrines are frequently quoted ; hence people ima- 
gine that these are philosophical works. It is time 
that they are recognised not to be such, but that the 
former are manuals of Up^sana, heterogeneous 
collections of various methods of meditation, advo- 
cated and practised in ancient India, and of utter- 
ances embodying mystic experiences while in an 
exegesis or state of ecstasy , and the latter, but a 
manual of the same. Nor are the Sutras com- 
plete in the sense that they contain unmistakeably 
BAdarayftna's ideas. For the word Sutra means a 
thread. The S Q t r a s are series of single words, or 
phrases, or sentences, on which were hung the ex- 
planations and lectures of the ^ishis to their discip- 
les and were a sort of memoria technica intended to 
remind the disciples of the teachings of the Master. 
In many aphorisms, neither the subject treated of, 
nor what is predicated, is at all referred to ; e. g. 
« From connection " ( Ved. Sut. L iv. /j );" On ac- 
count of the connected meaning of the sentences " 
{lb. /. iv. /p). In course of time the lectures were 
lost, the * threads', alone remained, without the 
pearls, lending themselves to the ingenuity of the 
commentators to hang whatever they liked on the 
S ii t r a s ; this and the wonderful dialectic skill of 
the Achftryas have in the case of the V e d 4 n t a 
S ii t r a s made it all but impossible for an unsecta- 

( 77 ) 

n investigator to find out exactly the opinions oi 
Bcidardyana on imany points. 

Yet there is no ambiguity about the fundament- 
al position of the VedftntaSfltras. " Then 
therefore the enquiry into Brahma. From 
which the origin, etc. of this (Cosmos), From being 
the source of the Scripture. That, again, from its 
close connection. From seeing (i. e, conscious- 
ness) being attributed to the cause of the world, 
unconscious matter is not (the cause; for it is) 
unscripturar {V e d. SUt. I. i. i. 5), The re- 
ality behind the Cosmos is thus a conscious 
Being. The Siitras then explain that this 
Being is referred to in the Upanishads for 
purposes of Upftsana (meditation) by various 
personal names— A nandamaya, the Blissful 
person {IL I. i. 12-19), HiranmayaPurusha, 
Golden person (in the Sun), Akshipurusha, 
person within the eye {lb. i. i. 20), Manomaya, he 
who consists of mind {lb. I. ii. 1-8), etc.; this Being is 
also referred to in the Upanishads by names 
of material substances — A k d s a {lb. I. i. 22), 
P r^ n a {lb. I. i.-23), J y o t i s, light ( lb. I. i. 24. 
27). etc. 

This Brahma is 'the operative (N i m i 1 1 a) 
cause of the world. *' He is declared as described 
to be the cause with regard to A k & 8 a, etc. ' 
{lb. I. iv. 14). Because the world is called (His 
work) " {lb. I. iv. 16). He is also the material 

( 78 ) 

cause of the world. "The material cause also, oa 
account of its not being in conflict with the pro- 
missory statements and the illustrative instances " 
{lb. I. iv. 23). But he is formless. " He is without 
form verily, that being the most important. (He 
is) as consisting of Light (which manifests forms), 
(this discription) being not devoid (of meaning)" 
(/*. III. ii. 14-15). "For this very reason (are 
used) comparisons such as (images) of the sun, etc" 
{lb. III. ii. 18). " He is a v y a k t a, undifferentiat- 
ed, so (the scripture) says. But (He is apprehen- 
ded) by propitiation, according to pratyaksha 
and an u mftna "' {lb. III. ii. 23;. 

He is the Supreme, though he is described in 
the Vedas by means of phrases indicative of 
limitations of place, as a bank (set u), a -boundary 
etc. "On account of the designation of bank, 
measure, connection, and separation, (in the S r u t i), 
one might think there is some thing higher than 
He ; but (it is not so, for He is only called a s e t u) 
on account of some resemblance (between a bank 
and Him). (Such phrases only) subserve the 
purposes of the mind ; as when we speak of his 
four feet. (The statements of connection and 
difference) are due to difference of place, a$ Ai^ the 
<:ase of light, etc. (bdng spoken of a's'stiiningf-ftl' 
particular places^ though all' pervasive) bnd on' 
account of the possibiUty (of only this soft of 
^onnectioa .between Him and other epki^teQces).' 

( 79 ) 

Thus from a denial of everything else (He alone 
is the) Highest. His omnipresence (is proved) 
from declarations of (His) extent "(/^. HI. ii. 30-36). 
He is also the moral governor of the world, the 
distributor of the rewards of actions. " From Him, 
the fruit ; for (that alone) is possible. And because 
that is declared by Scripture" (/*. HI. ii. 37-38). 

Thus there is no ambiguity about the main 
V e d A n t a position. The noumenon of the world 
is one. In Pralaya that one can neither be regarded 
as consciou^^eing^jk^^we know it (Sat) nor as the 
^£55?^*2H£-C:^L§-,^JU*- ^^ is above Sat and above 
A s a t. These two are aspects of Him, but yet are 
apprehended apart form Him. He is the one 
source of life, the one goal of aspiration to be 
reached by conciousness ( J fi ^ n a g a m y a). 

Plotinus, in the third century A. D., learnt 
these Ved An ta teachings, and taught them in 
Rome in words that recall the phraseology of 
the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita, " In 
order to perceive the one it is necessary to 
receive froth intellect a declaration of what in- 
tellect is able to accomplish. Intellect, however, 
is able to see either things prior to itself, or things 
pertaining to itself, or things affected by itself. And 
the things Ibdeed contained in itself are pure ; but 
those prior to itself are still purer and more sim- 
ple ; 01? rather this mast be asserted of that which 
is prior to it. Hence, that which is prior to it, is 

( 8o ) 

not intellect, but something more excellent For 
intellect is a certain one among the number of 
beings, but that is not a certain one, but prior to 
everything. Nor it is being (Sat); for being 
has, as it were, the form of the one. But That is 
formless and is not even without intelligible form. 
For the nature of the one being generative of 
all things, is not any one of them. Neither, there- 
fore, is it a certain thing, nor a quality, nor a quan- 
tity, nor intellect, nor soul, nor that which is 
moved, nor again that which stands still, nor is 
it in place nor in time; but is by itself uni- 
form, or rather without form, being prior to all 
form, to motion and permanency.,.. When we say 
that the one is the cause of all things, we do not 
predicate anything as an accident to it, but 
rather as something which happens to us, because 
we possess something from it, the one in the 
meantime subsisting in itself" (Enn. III. ix. 
Tranl. Taylor). Spinoza, among modern European 
philosophers approaches nearest to the V e d A n t a 
metaphysical position. " God, or substance, consist- 
ing of infinite attributes, of which each expresses 
eternal and infinite essentiality, necessarily exists. 
Whatsoever is, is God ; and without God nothing 
can be, or be conceived. God is the in-dwelling and 
not the transient cause of all things. God is the 
efficient cause not only of the existence of things, but 
also of their essence. Intellect, in function finite, or in- 

( 8i ) 

function infinite, must comprehend the attributes 
of God and the modifications of God, and nothing 
else." {Ethics, I. Props. 11,15,18,25,30.) "Thought 
is an attribute of God, or God is a thinking being. 
Extension is an attribute of God, or God is an 
extended thing" {lb. 11. Props. 1,9). Pollock thu» 
translates S pinoza's metaphysical position in lang- 
uage suited to modern habits of thought. " We 
know the world under the attributes or aspects of 
extension and thought (A sat and Sat), and in 
each kind the sum of reality appears to be 
inexhaustible. Our world consists of modes of 
extension associated with modes of thought ... 
But we have no right to assume that this is the 
only world ; for this would be to set bounds to 
infinite being" (Spinoza^ His Life and Philoso* 
phy, p. 167). 

It is curious that one of the half-a-dozen sen- 
tences ( 1 o g i a ) which modern research has traced 
to Jesus, but which is not found in the Gospels^ 
is pure Vedftnta, Such Vedftnta logia were 
carefully eliminated from the Christian Gospels, pos- 
sibly during the time when the early church parted 
company with myticism in the 3rd and 4th centuries 
of the Christian era, and Christianity entered a 
phase of materialism from which it has not yet 

The Veddnta Sutras also discuss the rela- 
tion between the individual souls and Supreme 

( 82 ) 

Brahma as well as the relation between Him a nd 
matter. But the different Achftryas have made 
these S fitras yield different meanings absolutely 
opposed to each other. Thus, III. ii. ii, literally 
translated would run, " Not on account of place, 
though of the Supreme, two-fold characteristics ; 
everywhere, verily " Sahkara reads this as " Not 
on account of (difference of) place also caa 
twofold characteristics belong to the Supreme; for 
everywhere ( Scripture teaches Brahma to be 
without diflference )." 

RAmAnuja makes this out as, "Not on account of 
place even is there any imperfection in the Supreme ; 
for everywhere ( He is described ) as having two- 
fold characteristics." According to Madhva, it 
is, "Even from difference of place, no essential differ- 
ence between the manifestations of the Lord should 
be supposed ; for ( § r u t i declares of Him the iden- 
tical character ) everywhere." Again, HI. ii. 17 runs 
thus : — " It is seen (in S r u t i ) ; and also is remem* 
bercd (in S m f i t i )." Sankara comments on this; — 
"That Brahma is without difference is proved 
by passages from the S r u t i. The same teaching 
is conveyed by Smfiti." RimAnuja comments 
on the S ft t r a as follows : — "Hosts of Veddnta 
passages ( prove ) His being devoid of faults and 
being the treasure-house of auspicious qualities ; so, 
too, the S myitis". Madhva makes out this 
s ft t r a to mean that S r u t i shows that perfect bliss 

( 83 ) 

4s the form of the Lord and S m f i t i shows that 
the Lord's form consists of intelligence. Again 
that famous sentence of the Upanishads^ "Tat 
Satyam Sa Atm^Tattvamas i/' has been 
the battle-ground of the Achdryas. Sankara in 
comments on it says, " In the sentence * T a 1 1 v a- 
CQ a s i ' ( That thou art ) it is taught that * thou ' 

refers to Sat, real Being By 'Tattvamasi' 

( he ) directly teaches the identity of the Self and 
Sat, Pure Being" {Com. on ChK Up, vi. i6.) Rftma- 
nuja explains it as follows : — ** The word * that ' 
refers to Him who is the cause of the world, a mine 
of hosts of all auspicious qualities, without imperfec- 
tions, without change, and * thou ' refers to the same 
Brahma specialised in the mode of a Jlva 
who is his own body, by his forms of the inner 
-controller of J i v a s ." ( Veddrthasamgraha, p. 35. ) 

Madhva remarks on this passage, "the state- 
ment of non-difrerence( between the individual soul 
and Brahma ) is due to his essential nature being 
knowledge, bliss, etc. ; which are qualities of Brah- 
«ia ( also ) " {Bhdshya on Ved. SUL, II. ii. 29). 

In one of his Praharanas^ called Vishnu 
Tattva Nirnaya, section Navakritobhydsa, Ma* 
dhva cuts the Gordian knot by proposing to read 
"SaAtmA, Atattvamas i," "He is the A t - 
m k , Thou are not that." This is the reductis ad 
nhsurdum of the favourite Hindu method of 

( 84 ) 

deriving new ideas from old texts. 

The |l i s b i s of the Upaniskads spoke as 
Up^sakas. Sentences like *'t a 1 1 v a m a s i" were 
intended to give pointed expression to experiences- 
reached during the practice of V i d y ^ s, methods 
of meditation, which abound in the Upanishads^ 
They are psychological facts, at least to the 
one engaged in the mystic contemplation ; facts 
to be verified by following the methods of medita- 
tion prescribed, and not to be treated, as the 
Ach&ryas, and more especially their later expound - 
ers have done, as texts to be wrenched out of 
their context and made the foundation of a philo- 
sophical structure built with a heavy load of argu- 
mentation. The R i s h i s spoke of Brahma 
from the intuitions reached during the rare mo- 
ments of ecstatic communion with Him, arrived at 
after steady attempts at keeping down all mental 
activity and reaching a plane above the storms of 
human passions. By the more or less contradic- 
tory statements of the Real being scattered in the 
VedaSy and especially in the final sections of the 
Vedas called the Upaniskads^ the human mind 
tries to represent to itself what must ever be 
realized by transcending the mind ; mind being^ 
but an organ made of matter, human language^ 
which is the expression of the human mind, can 
contain only expressions descriptive of objective 
material categories. To attempt to describe ii> 

( 85 ) 

-such language what is not mind, and further what 
ts not conscious being as men know it, must neces- 
sarily lead to the use of contradictory ideas and 
phrases. The 9 i s h i s, who spoke from intuition, 
did not realise the difficulties that cold logic could 
raise against the contradictory statements that 
alone are possible when we attempt to describe the 
indescribable, to limit in forms of speech what is 
unlimited, to imprison in symbols of the mind 
(p r a 1 1 k a, that which is formed by out-going 
activity of the mind) what for ever soars in an 
atmosphere which the mind cannot reach. The 
Achftryas of a later age were anxious above 
all to construct a self-consistent theory. Logical 
consistency can apply only to the systems built by 
the mmd. An extension of the laws of mind to 
the region of the Absolute, which is above mind 
as It is above all regions of relativity, must lead to 
profitless logic-chopping, as it has done in the 
sectarian squabbles of the minor subdivisions of 
the VedAnta. 

The principal commentators of the Veddntm 
S'Atras among those that have founded sects, 
namely Sankara, Ramftnuja and Madhva, have 
imposed on them three widely different, but self- 
consistent philosophical and disciplinary systems 
called Advaita, Visisht^dvaita and 
D V a i t a • Their followers have accentuated the 
differences among these three, and minimised their 

( 86 ) 

points of agreement, and thus carried on the 
sectarian movement till the modern Vedantic secte 
are hopelessly divided. Later, but original, com- 
mentators have formed other theories out of the 
same S <i t r a s. We shall briefly indicate the 
main line of divergence of these three original sects 
of the Veddnta. 

S a li k a r a starts from the positi.Qn.£if..Qinejvho^ 
attempts to realize the nature of the A t naJL the 
Self manifested in the heart of the indi vidual^ 
of one " who apprehends in the memcQt^ofthe 
rise of knowledge (/. e. in the moment of nealiza- 
tion of the Supreme) his Self and no second '^ 
{DakshindmHrti Stotrai). When the consciousness 
is released from the bounding adjuncts of matter 
and mind, there is no more duality, no more 
relativity, all is One and that One is the Self. 
In such a state of exaltation the world appears 
unmanifested, "like the shoot within the seed.'*^ 
Hence §laiikara allows only phenomenal ex* 
istence to the individual Self, Jivfttm^ (the 
self living in the world) and to matter. The 
following quotations from his B h ft s h y a on the 
Brahma Sutras indicate his view on these 

" We meet with two forms of Brahma (described 
in the Sruti, one) conditioned by the different 
kinds of name and form, and (the other) the opposite 
of this, devoid of all conditions whatsoever. Thus 

( 87 ) 

where there is duality (or relativity) then one sees 
the other. When all becomes his Self, whom does 
he see and by what (organ)?" {Br. Up. IV. x. 15), 
" When he sees naught else, that is the high (state);, 
when he sees something else, hears something else, 
perceives something, that is the low (state). That 
which is the high, that is the immortal (state); that 
which is the low, that is the mortal (state)" {Chh. 
Up. VII. xxiv. 1). " The Vise one, who, having per- 
ceived all forms and made all names, sits calling 
(them by their names) " {Tait. Ar. III. xii.;7)."With- 
out parts, without actions, peaceful, without faults, 
taintless, the supreme s e t u (bank) of immortality, 
like a fire that has consumed its fuel" {Svet. Up. VI. 
19). " Not so, Not so ' {Brih. Up. II.iii.6). " Not 
great, not small" (/^. Ill-viii. 8;. " One place is 
defective, the other perfect". These texts and a thou- 
sand others point out the double form of Brahma, 
according as it is the object of V i d y & or A vi- 
d y ^, knowledge or Nescience " ( Ved. Sut, I. i. 1 1). 
" (It is argued that) He who maintains the nature of 
B r a b m a to be immutable (K ii t a s t h a b r a h m- 
fttmavftdl) contradicts the tenet of 1$ vara being 
the cause (of the world) ; because the absolute unity 
(of Brahma) precludes the relation of the Ruler and 
the ruled. (To this we reply), No, for omniscience 
(and other qualities) of I§vara depend on the evo- 
lution of the germs of name and form, which are of 
the nature of Nescience Forming (as it were) 

( 88 ) 

the very soul of the omniscient l?va r a, are name 
and form, produced by nescience, incapable of 
being described as Its nature or as the nature of 
any other than That, which constiute the germs of 
the phenomenal universe. This is the wonder- 
working power (M ft y ^ ? a k t i) of the omniscient 
Ijvara, Prakriti, as we learn from Sruti and 
Smjriti. The omniscient I§ vara is other than those 

two (name and form) Thus l§vara is dependent 

upon the conditions of name and form, produced 
by nescience, just as space is dependent upon the 
conditioning objects, jars, pots, etc. (before it be- 
comes differentiated as the space inside a jar, the 
space inside a pot, etc.). From the standpoint 
of the phenomenal universe he is the Sovereign of 
those who are called Jf vas, (individual souls), Vij- 
fiftnfttmfts (lit knowing selves, those capable of 
perception and knowledge^ who are his very self, 
but who depend on (bodies that are) the aggregates 
of organs of action, produced by name and form, 
based on nescience, resembling in this the space in 
a jar; hence t$vara's Lordship, omniscience, and 
omnipotence depend on the limitation of con- 
dition of the nature of nescience. From the stand- 
point of the noumenon the activities (involved) in 
being the Ruler, the ruled, the omniscient, etc., 
cannot subsist in the Self, cleared of all limiting 
adjuncts by right knowledge (Vidyft)." {Com. on 
Ved, Sut, II. i. 14). "In the supreme Brahma, 

( 89 ) 

there is no duality ; this concept excludes no second 
6eing, real or unreal. The concept t$vara neces- 
sitates the concept of a causal *fore-state '(prAgavas- 
t h A) of the world, dependent on the t§vara, but 
without which tsvara cannot become a creator. 
This causal state of the world is called A v i d y A, 
•nescience, for it is destroyed by V i d y ^, knowledge 
of the A t m d which secures for the M u k t a, the re- 
leased, once for all, the realization of the absolute 
unity of all life. It is also called A v y a k t a, un- 
manifested, for before creation it cannot be perceiv- 
•ed ; sometimes it is spoken of as M ft y ^, illusion ** 
{Bhdshya on Ved, SUt. I. iv. 3). The theory that 
Prakrit! is Mftyft, unreal, the non-existent 
simulating reality , was started by §ahkara and 
done to death by his later followers. He himself is 
"guarded in his statements, as might be noticed in 
the above quotations, and seems to insist more on 
A V 1 d y 4 (ignorance) being the cause of the im- 
aginary duality where there is but unity ; but later 
Advaitis have, with the fatal, but dangerous, 
facility with which phrases devoid of content are 
handled by metaphysicians, created M ft y ft into 
a non-entity that masquerades as an entity, 
and read this doctrine into the UpanU 
shads. All other schools of Hindu thought 
that have any touch with Vedftnta — Vaishnava, 
•§ftkta and Mfthe$vara Schools have always 
protested against the notion of the world being an 

( 90 ) 

unreal non-entity, as it is based on the real Br ah aia- 
Among European scholars, Colebrooke first noticed 
that M d y ^ was always used in the early (and 
genuine) Upanishads and BhagavadGttd for the 
wonder-working power of the Lord, and the use 
of May a for non-entity or for Prakfiti was- 
invented by the A dvaita School. It is curious 
that Gough and, in ourday,Deussen, should have so- 
far allowed their critical faculty to be obscured by 
their familiarity with the A dvaita Vedftnta 
as to attempt to read the modern M 4 y ft doctrine 
into the ancient Upanishads. To these scholars* 
as to most Indian Advaitls, the word Vedftnta 
means a d v a i t a ; the ^dfikara teaching and that^ 
too, in its later developments, identical with that, of 
the Upanishads. They forget that §ahkara^ 
though a great philosopher, claims to be but a 
Bhftshyakftra, a commentator, and that he did 
not even profess, as Rftmftnuja professes, to ex- 
pound the Siitrasin accordance with tradition. 
If Sankara quotes any previous commentator 
it is but to criticize him ; he boldly starts 
a new line of thought following the logical necessi*^ 
ties of his stand point and brushes aside any tex- 
tual difHculties that -might obstruct him. All 
system-builders that base their philosophical sys- 
stem on ancient inspired texts have to twist them to- 
suit their purposes ; but §ankara does this more- 
sclf-reliantly than the other AchSryas who support 

( 91 ) 

their interpretations by quotations from other books 
of doubtful authority. Sankara relies chiefly on 
argument for this purpose. 

The A d V a i t a was first propounded by Gau^a- 
p&da, a generation before ^ankara, in his K & r i k & s 
on the MditdHkya V pants had. It is noteworthy 
that Gau^ap«ida and his disciple's disciple, as $ah- 
kara is said to be, were both of them $ & k t a s,. 
and base the whole A d v a i t a doctrine on the 
fundamental fact of their realization of the unity 
of all life in the ecstacy of contemplation. It is 
to them a fact of experience, a "datum of conscious- 
ness" reached after undergoing a special discipline. 
$ajikara defines those whose "vision is superior" 
as those who are able to realize that the A t m & 
alone exists {Com. on Mdnif^kya Kdrikd^ iii. i6). 
He again speaks of the " Ad va itadrish^i 
(vision of oneness ) of us, the disillusioned " {lb. 
Hi. 1 8). Whereas all their critics later than RA- 
mfiknuja, and, what is more curious, all their 
followers and exponents, too, treat it, not as a ques- 
tion of fact, but as a question of argument, not as a 
question of discipline, but of exegesis. This has 
led to the fearful degeneration of Advaita in 
India, where we find people who talk monism 
all day long, but lead the most selfish life imagin- 

RAm&nuja controverts the fundamental me- 
taphysical positions of the Advaita. (i) He 

( 92 ) 

•does not allow that a non-difFerentiated substance 
could be established by any one's consciousness, 
because consciousness always implies difference. (2) 
He holds that the S r u t i does not also teach a 
Brahma free from all difference (nirvi$esha 
Brahma). To accentuate his opposition to this 
theory he delights in piling adjective on adjective 
describing the divine attributes. "The one cause 
of the evolution, maintenance, dissolution and 
release from Sams&raof the universe of sentient 
and non-sentient objects, of a nature different 
from all things other than Himself, on account of 
being hostile to all evil, and being one with infi- 
nite auspiciousness, of hosts of lovely qualities, 
boundless and unsurpassable. Universal Atmft, 
Supreme Brahma, Supreme Light, Supreme Es- 
sence, Supreme A t m A, known in all Ved&nta 
by various words like Sat, etc. the Lord, N arft- 
y a n a , Exellent Purusha" ( Relmelnuja's 
Vedartha Samgraha, p. ii.) (3). He also 
holds that the theory of a beginningless M 4 y & 
(Nescience) cannot be proved by the accepted me- 
thods of proof. (4). Nor can such Nescience act on 
supreme reality so as to become the cause of creation, 
etc. For he argues that a perfect Being cannot be- 
come a prey to ignorance ; hence, according to him, 
creation and relativity are due not to M Ay A, but to 
the Love of the Supreme Deity for man and other 
individual souls. He allows the validity of the 

( 93 ) 

realization of Unity (Advait^nubhava) of 
Gau^apSda and Sankara, but explains that this 
ecstatic consciousness of unity is not the cons- 
ciousness of the Supreme Brahma, but that of 
the Self as apart from the limitations of mat* 
ter(Prakriti Viy u kt Atm^ dar§ana). A 
higher experience than this is the intuition of 
Par am Brahma by constant loving meditation 
on his divine attributes (b h a k t i, u p «i s a n a). 

He regards metaphysical questions from this 
standpoint and hence he teache$ that Brahma 
is Savi§esha, characterized by attributes. He 
is the Self of both the individual souls (chit) and 
matter fa c h i t] and yet different from them. His 
views of the relation of the Supreme to individual 
Attn Si and matter can be gathered from the fol- 
lowing: — **It is proved from the Antaryami 
Brahmana {Brik, Up, III. viii. 3-23), etc., that 
Chit and A c h i t (conscious and unconscious 
beings) in their gross effected state (during a 
Kalpa) and in their subtle causal state (during 
P r a 1 a y a) form the body ofParam Brahma, 

and Param Brahma is their Soul; From 

words like Arambhana, etc. (Chhand, Up. V /. 
i. 4. etc.), it is known that the world is not other 
than the Supreme cause, the ParamBrahma^ 
Now this is the truth — it is Brahma that is 
denoted at all times by all words because of His 
having for his body Chit and A c h i t. 

( 94 ) 

Sometimes (during p r a 1 ay a) notwithstanding; 
^is possession (of these) as His own body the 
body of Chit and A c h i t attains a Subtle State» 
in which it is incapable of being designated apart 
from Him. This is Brahma in the causal condition 
(K^ra^AvasthA). At other times (during 
K a 1 p a) the body of Chit and A c h i t attains & 
gross state in which it is capable of being treated 
as something apart from him. This is the effected 
condition (Kkry kv s,s\hk) {Sri BhAshya on 
Ved. sat. II. \. IS). 

Thus according to R&mAnuja, the Reality is 
one, the Supreme Brahma and Chit, the cqns- 
cious individual souls, and A c h i ^ , the unconscious 
forms of matter, are his bodies, A vy a k t a, in- 
distinguishable from Him during P r a 1 a y a, but 
during K a 1 p a in a period of manifestation ; not 
only V y a k t a, distinguishable from Him, but 
related to Him in the S6shi§eshabh^va, the 
relation of the Disposer and the disposable. 

The Vi$ishtadvaita has undergone a 
degeneration quite as bad as that noticed in the 
case of the A d v a i t a. R«im&nuja preached 
an isvara of unimaginably excellent qualities, 
the goal of loving thoughts uninterupted like a 
stream of oil, of whom all humanity and all nature 
was the body. His followers to-day have become 
an exclusive sect, marked off from the rest of 
the Hindus by glaring white and r^ marks cover- 

( 95 ) 

ing their person and substituting an elaborate 
mummery for the simple life of loving meditation 
on the perfections of I^vara and service of men 
that the founder preached. It is also curious 
that R^m^nuja speaks more often of I^vara, 
though he maintains Neire^yaQa to be the chief 
form of I$vara; but his followers call them- 
selves Vaish^avas, the devotees of Vishnu, 
one of the Hindu Trinity* RAm^nuja, while 
controverting the psychological possibility of 
cognizing a Nirvisesha Brahma, an absolute 
Being devoid of attributes, fully recognised the 
validity of the A d v a i t a experience of the unity 
of 1. 1 m A as one of the goals of humanity, as 
legitimate as a means of immortality as the Bha k t i 
he advocated. (Vide, Bhag, Gitd, Rdmdnuja 
Bhashya on viit. 20.) So, too, Y ft m u n a, his 
predecessor and the early A g a m a s. Similarly 
Safikara, while specially advocating j fi ft li a 
v o g a in all his writings, admits that Krishna 
taught the easier Karma Y o g a to his friend 
Arjuna in preference to the more difficult path 
of contemplation. (Vide Bhag. Gttd, Sahkara 
Bh&shya on xii. 13). But the disciples of these 
teachers have developed an intolerance which the 
founders of the A d v a i t a and the V i § i s h t ft d- 
V a i t a did not feel, and always tried to be-little 
each other's system and to abuse each other. 

Before going into Madhva's views on these 

( 96 ) 

questions, it must be pointed out that ^afikaraV 
and RftmAnuja's interpretations of the Ve- 
ddnta Satras agree in most points, except 
when in sundry places their special doctrines, 
come into conflict. Madhva's interpretations 
differ widely from these. Thus according to the 
former two, Ved. Sut. II. 4245 deal with the 
Bhftgavata doctrine, but according to Ma- 
dhva they deal with the S a k t a doctrine. By 
comparing Sankara's and Rlm&nuja's Bhflshyas, 
SiitrabySfttra, a comparative study of their 
common points and divergences can be made. 
But Madhva's B h ci s h y a strikes such original 
lines, that therein is visible most plainly how the 
traditional interpretations of the S d t r a s having 
become lost, the Bh&shyakaras, commentators, 
were untramelled and could make out whatever 
they wanted form the S 6 1 r a s. 

Madhva's views can be gathered from his« 
Bh&shya on Ved. SUtras, II. iii. 28, 29." The 
J 1 V a, individual soul , is certainly separate ( front 
the Lord), for Kau^ika Sruti argues, The 
supreme is different from the multitudes of indi- 
vidual Souls. The Supreme is inconceivable. He 
is full, the group of individual souls is not fulU 
He is eternally free, from Him release from bon- 
dage (is to be obtained). Hence he is to be 
sought : Since the essential nature (of the indivi- 
dual soul) is knowledge and bliss (which are also) 

( 97 ) 

the qualities of Brahma, the individual soul is 
spoken of as not different from Him. Brahma 
IS spoken of as the A t m 4 of all (the universe) in the 
text. All this is indeed Brahma' {CAh. III. 14. i) 
because all qualities belong to him". Under Ved. 
sat. II. iii. 7, he quotes the following from Brihat- 
Samkitd: — "The One, Supreme Purusha, In- 
divisible is called Vishnu. Prakriti, Puru- 
sha, Time, these three are divided (i. ^. limited) 

That Supreme, Hari, is immutable. Being 

undivided, He is of Supreme bliss, eternal, of 
eternal attributes; what is divided is of little 
power". The following quotation from Chapter V 
of Sarzadar^ana Sahgraha show how very 
vigorously the MAdhvas, protest against the 
A d v a i t a doctrine which they consider an insult to 
the most High :— "As stated in the Tatvavi- 
veka, Tattva (ultimate substance) is acknow- 
ledged to be two fold, independent and dependent; 
The Independent is Vishnu, the Lord exempt 
from imperfections and of endless excellence. 
From inference, too, difference (between the Su- 
preme and the individual) is ascertained. The 
Supreme Lord is different from Jiva, as (the 
former) is the object of his service. He who is 
to be served by another is different from him, as 

a king from his attendant On account of 

theirthfrsttobeone with the Supreme Lord (they 
make) a statement that the excellent attributes of 


( 98 ) 

Vishnu are like mirage aud this resembles the 
cutting of the tongue in the desire to gain a fine 
plantain ; since it will result in their entering 
Andhamtamas (Hell of utter darkness) on 

account of their offending Vishnu The 

grand revelation, *A difference between JIva and 
l$vara, and a difference between matter and 
l^vara.a difference of J i v a s each from others, 
a difference between matter and j ! v a and a dif- 
ference of material beings each from others, this 
is the fivefold difference in the universe.' This is 
real and beginningless ; if it had a beginning it 
would have an end ; but it has no end ; nor is it 
illusorily imagined, for if it were imagined merely, 

it would cease; but it never ceases As the 

Mahopanishad says, *Like a bird and the string 
(tied to it), like the juices of different trees, like 
the rivers and the seas, like fresh water and salt 
water, like the robber and the robbed, like man 
and the objects (that he sees), so are the J 1 v a 
and the lavara different, eternally differentiated 
from each other ' ". 

Starting from these three different standpoints 
numerous theories, all calling themselves V e- 
d ft n t a have been evolved by later expounders. Each 
system attempts to be a self-consistent whole* 
displaying the keenest logical and exegetical skill. 
The Bhdshyas and Vrittis on the Veddnta 
Sdtras so far discovered amount to over 30 and 

( 99 ) 

the commentaries on them run into hundreds 
each giving a slight twist to the original doctrines. 
It would not be possible to summarize the teach- 
ings of these schools ; nor would it be of much 
interest as the points of difference that endow 
each school with individuality are so minute 
and so much apart from modern interests. These 
three have been noticed partly because they are 
so popular in modern India and partly be- 
cause they seem to have been originally con- 
ceived as compromises between the Ved&nta 
and other metaphysical theories. The Advatta 
is a compromise between the Ved&nta and 
S^nkhya. It accepts the specific Sftnkhya ideas 
of the immutability of spirit and of action and 
experience belonging only to matter, but adds 
that neither the Furushas nor P r a k ^ i t i are 
really existent but are imagined to exist on ac- 
count of nescience. Buddhism and Jainism also 
influenced the evolution of the Advaita philosophy 
though Safikara like every other A c h ^ r y a, did 
not always clearly and correctly understand 
their position as is evidenced by his criticisms 
of them. The Dvaita is a compromise between 
Ny«iya and Ved&nta. It accepts the specific 
Nyftya teaching of the absolute differences among 
Ifvara, Jtvas and matter and grafts them on 
Ved^nta as far as possible. The VisishtA- 
dvaita attempts to find a meeting point for 

( 100 ) 

the monism of Ved&nta, the evolution and individt> 
alism of the Sftnkhya and the theism and realism 
of Nyftya. 

We can not in this book pursue the later deve* 
lopments of Ved&nta in this country. They 
form a vast mass of profitless literature in which 
the old philosophical schools have been jumbled 
up in inextricable confusion. In them argument 
takes the place of psychologfical experience, bigot- 
ry takes the place of meditation, and abuse of 
other sects takes the place of inspiration. Among 
them they have raised the innumerable sects that 
divide modern India and deprive philosophy of 
its power of consoling man in his troubles and 
elavating him to a place of peace. 

( 101 ) 

Sectioa II. A. Sahkhya. 

The SAnkhya analyses .the ' 'irfivfcrse mto 
two independent and sharpy cdhfrastiii-^/act5if%r? :\ 
P u r u s h a and P r a k f i t i, spirit and matter, 
subject and object. Purusha is not the Ego» 
for Egoity is a function of matter and the or- 
dinary human consciousness involved in the notion 
of * I ' is but the reflection of the Seer on the instru- 
ment of cognition. The pure consciousness of 
the P u r u s h a is reached only when the man 
has attained K a i v a 1 y a, aloneness, absolute 
separation from P r a k f i t i and is devoid of 
the distinction of I and not-L This Purusha 
is not the noumenon underlying all the puru- 
sha s of the universe, for each purusha, 
whether he be in the body of a D e v a or of a 
man, is independent of and different from other 
purushas of the Universe. His attributes are 
the reverse (v i p a r 1 1 a) of those of P r a k f i t i ; 
he is immutable, not affected by the G u n a s, the 
conscious Seer of objective, phenomenal forms, 
separate from other purusha s, the . en j oyer 
(b h o k t a) of pleasure and pain {SAh. Kdr. xi). 
He is neither p r a k |r i t i nor v i k f i t i, neither the 
antecedent nor the consequent state of a chang- 
ing object {lb, iii). The existence of the knower 
is established by the following proofs, (i) The 
objects of the universe apparently exist not for 

( 102 ) 

their own but for another's use. (2) The existence of 
matter with^Uupe: g u n a s pre-supposes the exis- 
tetj^e of -p-ii f u srb'a lyithout g u n a s. (3) Mao has 
;. thQ>:^Qwefl:tb coiitrof his body. (4) Man has the 
'power of 'enjoyment'. (5) Man is impelled to 
seek k a i V a 1 y a — the state when he is the pure 
seer, separated from contact with objects {16. xvii)^^ 
Hence the purushais the soh'tary, inactive wit- 
ness of the operations of Nature, bystander, spec- 
tator, passive (Id» xix). Being immutable he 
does not change into phenomenal forms like 
p r a k |r i t i, but by his union with forms of insen- 
tient matter, b u d d h i, etc., they assume the- 
appearance of sentiency and the inactive p u r u s h a 
appears active though it is the g u n a s that are the 
source of all activity (/6. xx). These p u r u s h a s 
are many in number, because birth, death and the 
organs (b u d d h i, etc.) are severally allotted to 
individuals, their activities are simultaneous, and 
the three g u n a s are differently distributed in 
different men(/j. xviii). As the S&fikhya teaches 
the existence of many purushas, each 
living eternally separate from the rest, it may best 
be described as a school of individualism. 

P r a k f i t i, the other constituent of the uni-^ 
verse is of two forms, one causal, and homogeneous 
the other, effected and discrete (v y a k t a.) The 
latter (v y a k t a), is an effect (het u mat), inconstant,, 
anpervading, 1. e, bounded, mutable, multitudinous,. 

( 103 ) 

phenomenal, mergent (in its noumenon), divisible 
and dependent. The former is the reverse {lb, x). 
Pradh&na, or MAlaprakfiti as the nou- 
menon of material forms is called, is that from 
which the organs of knowledge and action and the 
objects thereof are evolved. It is not a modifica- 
tion of anything antecedent (vikfiti); hence 
it is a noumenon {lb. iii). It can not be apprehen- 
ded by the organs of knowledge on account of its 
subtility and has to be inferred from its effects 
b u d d h 1, etc., some of which are similar to it, others 
dissimilar {lb. viii). It differs from its phenomenal 
manifestations (vyakta) in having no an- 
tecedent, being indestructible, pervasive, inactive, 
unique, unsupported, indissoluble, indivisible, un- 
controllable {lb, x). It is curious that mtilaprakriti, 
the root of matter is, in the Saftkhya school 
given all the negative attributes that the Veddnta 
attributes to Par am Br ah m a. It is also note- 
worthy that similar negative attributes are attri- 
buted to ether by modern science. Agnes Gierke, 
in her Modern Cosmogonies describes ether in words 
strikingly similar to the S&fikhya description of 
MOlaprakfiti allowing for the difference of 
standpoint between the metaphysical and the 
scientific. *• To the very brink of that mysterious 
ocean, the science of the 20th century has brought 
as ; and it is with a thrill of wondering awe that 
we stand at its verge and survey its illimitable 

( 104 ) 

•expanse. The glory of the heavens is transitory, 
but the impalpable, invisible ether inconceivably 
remains. Such as it is to-day, it already was when 
the Fiat Lux was spoken ; its beginning .must 
have been coeval with that of time. Nothing or 
everything according to the manner it is account- 
ed of, it is evasive of common notice, while 
obtrusive to delicate scrutiny. Its negative quali- 
•ties are numerous and baffling. It has no effect in 
impeding motion ; it does not perceptibly arrest, 
absorb, or scatter light ; it pervades, yet has 

> (apparently) no share in the displacements of gross 
matter. Looking, however, below the surface of 

, things we find this semi-fabulous quintessence to 
be unobtrusively doing all the world's work. It 
embodies the energies of motion ; is, perhaps, in a 
very real sense, the true primum mobile; the 
potencies of matter are rooted in it ; the substance 
of matter is latent in it ; universal intercourse is 
maintained by means of the ether ; cosmic influ* 
ences can be exerted only through its aid ; unfelt, 
it is the source of solidity ; unseen, it is the vehicle 
of light ; itself non-phenomenal, it is the indis* 
pensable originator of phenomena. A contradic- 
tion in terms, it points the perennial moral that 
what eludes the senses is likely to be more perma- 
nently and intensely actual than what strikes 

Besides these negative attributes Pradhftna 

( 105 ) 

orMiilaprak|:iti has some positive attributes 
which are common to it and the phenomenal forms 
evolved from it. It is affected by the three Gunas, 
it is unconscious, objective, common to all 
Purushas, insensible to pleasure and pain and 
immutable (/5. xi). The existence of this Pra- 
d h ^ n a , (lit, chief principle) or M (i 1 a p r ak r i t i 
(or root of matter), this noumenon behind pheno- 
menal material objects, is proved by the following 
considerations ; (i) these objects being discrete, can 
only be conceived as being carved out of an in-* 
discrete something ; (2) certain common properties 
are found in all objects thus indicating a common 
-substratum ; (3) objects remain discrete only so 
long as the energy of their cause acts in them ; (4) 
an effect is different from its cause ; (s) the whole 
universe of multitudinous forms is one object 
{lb. xv). This noumenon of matter operates by 
means of the three G u n a s . The three G u 9 a s 
are not three qualities of some substance other 
than themselves ; but they " are substances, yet 
called Gun as, qualities, as they are the acces- 
sories of the Purusha" (Bh«iskarar&ya. Com. 
Lai, SaAas, 604). 

They are three strands into which primal matter 
differentiates itself when its homogeneity is first 
disturbed. Their manifestations as the so-called 
Laws of motion in the physical world, as mental 
-characteristics in the world of mind and as feeling- 

( io6 ) 

tones in the moral sphere have been described in 
Chap I. They are *' things (dravyftni) and not 
specific qualities." ''In speaking of qualities, bow- 
ever, the term G u n a is not to be regarded as an 
insubstantial accidental attribute, but as a substance 
discernible by soul through the medium of the 
faculties." (Wilson's Com. on Sah. Kdr. xii). The- 
origin of the theory of the three G u n a s is shrouded 
in obscurity. It appears all on a sudden in the 
Sftnkhya philosophy. The only references to it 
previous to the age of SAnkhya philosophy is 
found in Atharva Samhitd, X. viii. 43. "The 
knowers of Brahma know that spirit (Y a k s h a) 
which resides in the lotus with nine gates, invested 
with the three G u 9 a s." This verse is repeated in 
Ath, Sam, X. ii. 32, but the latter half is changed into 
'* in the sheath (K o s a) made of gold,of three spokes^ 
of three supports". The V e d i c age divided regions 
into three, Prithvi, Antariksha, and D y u, 
the earth, the intermediate sphere and the sky,. 
Possibly this triplet was developed into the triplet of 
G u 1^ a s. This idea is rendered probable by the 
fact that R ft j a s, the second of the G u n a s is alsa 
the name of the middle region, Antariksha. In 
P f i t h V 1 , the earth, there is a preponderance of 
Tamas, inAntariksh a, the middle region there 
is a preponderance of Raj a s and in the Dyu, the 
sky, there is a preponderance of S a 1 1 v a . Itv 
later times a fourth region and a fourth G u cl a 

( 107 ) 

was worked out and described in the Agamas 
and the Purdnas. This region was beyond the 
sky ; in this region the three G u n a s are absent ;. 
instead of them, there is^uddhasattva, illu- 
mination accompanied by knowledge, whereas 
the lower three regions are characterized by M i a r a- 
s a 1 1 V a — a mixture of the three G u q a s in 
different proportions. T a m a s literally means the 
condition of being choked or exhausted, hence 
darkness. R a j a s is colour, the coloured radiance 
of the cloudy regions, obscuration, Sattvais 
illumination, brightness. These are the three funda- 
mental blue, red and white threads out of which 
the universe is woven. 

These two categories of the SAhkhya, P u r u s h a. 
and P r a k r i t i are thus absolutely opposed to 
each other. There is nothing common between 
the two. Each Purusha is independent of the 
rest. There can be no common substratum 
underlying all P u r u s h a s , for the Purusha is 
the pure immutable consciousness and not a 
phenomenon. He can understand his nature as 
Purusha only by an intellectual analysis of 
man's life and putting away all that is contributed 
to it by matter and thus realizing his K a i v a 1 y a ^ 
aloneness. The SAhkhya reached this conclusion 
because it began by rejecting the ritual of the 
Vedas. "The revealed mode (of salvation] is> 
impure, because it requires animal sacrifices, while 

K I08 ) 

its rewards also are susceptible of diminution and 
excess/' {Id. ii). The Sftiikhya proves its con- 
clusions by the intellectual analysis of human 
experience and not like the Veddnta by ex- 
egesis. In this path each man can start only with 
his own experience; and starting therefrom, he 
denudes it of all that is] not himself. He strips 
from his experience sensation, perception, egotism, 
and volition, all that matter has contributed, and 
finally knows himself to be the pure J fi a, knower, 
when there is an end to ignorance and pain. Hence 
when he is M u k t a he remains a separate entity, 
in other words he reaches K a i v a 1 y a, aloneness. 
The history of the rise of the Sfthkhya 
school of thought is wrapped in impenetrable 
obscurity. Most scholars now admit that it was 
developed before the age of Buddha. The 
Kapila SUtras as we have them, has been 
proved to be a work composed not earlier than 
the XIV century, A. D., though it probably con- 
tains words and phrases belonging to a vtty 
much earlier KapilaSHtras^ now lost. The Tattva 
Samdsa SAtras which Max Miiller regarded as 
an ancient work strikes us as being a rather late 
index of some pre-existing S A t r a work. t$vara 
Krishna's Sdhkhya Kdrikd composed probably in 
the age immediately preceding the beginning of the 
Christian Era, is the earliest exposition of the 
S&nkhya that we have. KftrikA, means the versified 

( 109 ) 

form of a pre-existing S A t r a. Fafichasikha, an 
early Sftiikhya teacher is quoted by Vy4sa in his 
commentaries on Yoga S'Atras II. 13. He is 
also quoted in the S&hkhyasdra ♦ by Bh&va 
Gane^a Dikshit, a disciple of Vijfiana Bhikshu. 
All this early Sdhkhya literature is now lost; 
but yet there is no room for doubting that the 
system was worked out in the form it now exists 
in the age that preceded the birth of Gautama 
Buddha and Mahftvlra. This system, so ancient in 
birth and so modern in spirit, must have taken 
some centuries to be developed. Philosophical sys- 
tems do not start straight from the head of a 
thinker, as the finished Minerva from the head 
of Jupiter. The SAnkhya, as we know it, 
is a final product with no mark of the hesitancy 
which characterizes an evolving system. It holds 
definite views on many questions, the nature of 
S a m s ft r a and of Karma, the functions of 
the three G u n a s , the nature of the P u r u s h a, 
the materiality of Anta^karana, and the 
unreality of bondage, most of which were scarce- 
ly known to the thinkers of the early Upanu 
shads. The Sclftkhya is a finished metaphysics 
and a finished psychology. How many centuries 
intervened between the fiuid state of thought we 
meet with in the later V e d i c age and the co-ordi- 
oation and crystalline polish of ^ the Sftfikhya, 

*A Ms. work loaned to me by Mr. Qovinda DfU of Benarei. 

( no ) 

what has become of the intervening literature 
which alone can show how the one evolved out of 
the other, who can say ? Between the schoolmen 
with their doctrine of "occult qualities" and 
"sympathetic virtues" and the modern pellucid 
scientific conceptions of energy, eta, so many 
centuries of quick-moving thought have elapsed. 
Whether ancient thought moved as quick, what 
helped on the ancient S&hkhya movement to 
gain independence of the trammels of revealed 
scriptures and boldly take its stand on reason, is 
a problem which at present defies solution. Of 
one thing we may be sure. The S&fikhya 
could not have been evolved by one man, of how- 
ever commanding genius, as Prof. Garbe thinks 
(vide Introduction to his translation of Anirud- 
dha's Commentary). 

Another equally curious fact is the fate of the 
Sinkhya system after its promulgation. The 
Veddnta SAtras make a definite attempt to 
oppose it kSHU II. i. 1-2 and II. ii. i-io). The 
Buddhists controverted some of its teachings. 
The Vaiseshikas from the beginning opposed 
its fundamental principle of Satk&yav&da, 
the axiom that effects pre-exist in a potential form 
in their causes. But very soon and especially 
outside these schools, the S^mkhya came to be 
regarded as a revelation and absorbed bodily and 
welded firmly into later Indian thought 

( III ) 

The Agamas, on which has been based the 
Hindu religion of the past two thousand years 
took in the Saiichya wholly. The Icharya s 
except that they oppose one SSfikhya tenet— 
that a Supreme conscious being is not the cause 
of the world-treat the rest of the SAAkhya 
teaching as revealed truth and base their exposi- 
tion of the Vedanta on the Sinkhya. This 
has cut short the further evolution of the system 
and It remains exactly where it was two thousand 
five hundred years ago. Whether a future Indian 
Renaissance, inspired by the science of the West 
will take up the work thus interrupted is a problem 
whose answer is concealed in the womb of the 

B. Yoga. 

The metaphysics of the Yoga school is 
practically the same as that of the S^nkhya 
Purush a and Prakriti are called by the more 
expresive names of Drashta and Dri^ya the 
Seer and the Seen. Sight (Dfiji) is the word 
used m this school to express the function of con- 
aousness, as other schools prefer light f P r a k d s a) 
or J n a n a ( knowing ). The Seer sees the op- 
erations of the -inner organ', which in this 
school is called C h i 1 1 a, not to be confounded with 
the C h i 1 1 a of the later A d v a i t a schools whose 
function is merely memory. All mental activity the 

( "2 ) 

unceasing succession of • states of conciousness ' (as 
they are called is Western philosophy ) is termed 
Chittavritti in the Yoga SUtras and the 
Purusha sees these 'states of conciousness'; 
hence he is the Seer. Yoga is the inhibition 
of the ceaseless flow ofChittavfitti and while 
it ceases flowing, the Seer abides in his true nature 
(S vara pa) of pure conciousness {Yoga SAtras 
I. 2-3). " D r 1 s y a (The Seen) has the three qua- 
lities(Slla, Gun a) of illumination, activity and 
rest and is the noumenon of objects and organs 
(and exists) for the enjoyment and emancipation (of 
the Seer)". {Ib.U. i8). Pr a k a§a , K r i y a, S t h i t i 
cf the SAtra just quoted, stand for Sattva,. 
Rajas and T a m a s. 

The noumenon of the D r i § y a is called Alinga 
(lit, the indistinguishable), A v y a k t a, as it is cal- 
led in other Schools. It is the Pradh&na of the 
S^fikhyas. "The Drash^cl, mere vision, (con- 
ciotisness), though pure (/.^., devoid of any muta- 
tion), immediately perceives images of objects, 
common to others besides him (who has reached 
K a i V a 1 y a .) The conjunction (of the Seer and 
the Seen) is the cause that they attain the nature 
of the possessor and the possessed." {lb II. 20-23.) 
On account of this conjunction the Seer evolves 
into the possessor and the Seen is then apprehend- 
ed as possessed. But when ignorance is removed^ 
the real inmmutability of the Seer is grasped. 
Thus we see that, except for a complete change of 

( "3 ) 

technical terms, the metaphysical theories of the 
Yoga are absolutely identical with those of 
the Siiikhya. The Yoga SAira designates 
itself Sftikkhya Pravachana, exposition 
of Siiikhya. The Sarvadar^ana Sahgraha 
sums up the Yoga arguments regarding the im- 
routabity of the Seer in these words: — "Chiti- 
fa k t i ( lit. the power of ' knowing/, conciousness> 
is devoid of mutation because it always 'knows* 
(the mental modifications). If this Purusha 
were mutable, he could not always know mental 
modifications, as the mutable is inconstant (in its 
action). As the Purusha who is of the nature 
of consciousness remains always the Superinten- 
dent, his essentially pure nature is always main* 
tained. Whenever it (his nature) is (apparently) 
affected (lit clouded) by (the shadow of) any object 
whatsoever (that is perceived by him), it is the 
D r i 9 y a , the object that always receives his light 
and is illuminated by it. Hence the Purusha 
is (really) unaffected (during a perception) and 
it follows he is always knowing and is always 
above the suspicion of mutability. The C h i 1 1 a 
it is that is (really) affected by objects and then 
that object is perceived. When it is not affected (by 
an object), it is not perceived. Objects resemble 
magnets and the Chitta resembles iron and is 
qisceptible of mutation because it is the seat of 
attraction and repulsion (by objects) which causes 

( "4 ) 

their being known or unknown. Now (it may be 
objected that) as the C h i 1 1 a and I n d r i y a s (sense 
organs) which are of the nature of egoism are all- 
pervasive and hence always connected with all 
objects, therefore must be produced knowledge of 
all things always and everywhere. (It is replied 
that) though all-pervasive, when the C h i 1 1 a is 
modified in any one body and by certain objects 
in contact with that body, in that body alone is 
knowledge (of those objects) produced ; not in 
other bodies. As this limitation is absolute, it is 
held that objects are like magnets and af!ect the 
C h i 1 1 a which resembles iron by their coming into 
contact with it through the channels of the sense- 
organs* Hence modifications belong to the C h i 1 1 a 
and not the A t m 4 " {lb. chap. xv). 

D r i 8 y a (matter) evolves as B h A t a, objects, 
and I n d r i y a , organs, by which the D r a s h t & 
comes in contract with objects. Objects and organs 
are D h a r m 1 , the seat of D h a r m a or qualities. 
C h i 1 1 a, the inner organ, being a mode of D r i s y a, 
matter, cannot illuminate or manifest itself but 
must be lighted byPurusha. " The whole uni- 
verse is but the Chitta tinged by the Seen 
( on the one hand ) and the Seer ( on the other) 
< Yog. sat, iv. 22 ). The Seer illuminates it and the 
Seen colours it a mixture of white, red and blue, the 
three colours representing the three GuQas. 
As Vy&sa in . his comment on this S A t r a says, 

( IIS ) 

^•It is but C hit t a that, tinged by the Seer and 

the Seen, manifests as non-ego and ego becomes 

conscious and unconscious, though material, appears 

immaterial, and is called the totality of objects." 

Among the innumerable Purushas that are 

in this world there is one called t$vara. The 

mention of 1$ vara in the Yoga SUtras has made 

many people decribe the Yoga as a School of 

theism ; but this is extremely inaccurate ; for the I s- 

V a r a mentioned in the Yoga is in no sense God. 

He is neither the ruler of Nature nor the moral 

governor of the Universe. Out of the multitude 

of Purushas in the Universe, he is a special 

P u r u s h a whp was never touched by K 1 e $ a, the 

defects of ignorance, egoism, desire, aversion, and 

clinging to life, and by the mental deposits left by 

Karma and their fruition {lb, i. 14). In Him i% 

fully developed the seed of Omniscience which every 

P u r u s h a has. He is the ancient teacher whose 

life Is unbroken by Time as ours is {lb, 1-25-26). 

The t§vara of Yoga Dar$ana, therefore, 

is neither the reality behind Nature, nor any 

Universal Being in which human selves find their 

unity. Except omniscience and mastery over 

time, He has no other divine attribute. His only 

function being that of an ancient teacher. Hence 

Yoga is in its tenets as atheistic as Si&khya. 

Yoga is called in IndiaSe$vara S&tikhya, the 

Sdfikhya which acknowledges the existence of 

( "6 ) 

an 1 f V a r a ; but when this phrase is translated 
^theistic S&iikhyas, as is frequently done by 
English Scholars, it becomes absurd. For the 
1 9 vara here referred to is not the Lord of the 
world, but the Lord only of his devotee, and He is 
his Lord only in the sense that he figures Him in 
his heart as the mystic syllable ' O m ' and this 
makes it easy for him to reach his own inner con- 
sciousness. Though the 1 9 vara of Yoga is an 
inactive Purusha, it accepts, like the Sfth* 
k h y a, the a d h i d a i V a t a, animistic, explanation 
of the life of nature. But this doctrine of the 
adhidaivata cannot make any philosophy 
^ theistic ' in any sense of the word. On account 
of the great spread ofVed&ntain modern India^ 
later writers like Madhusfldhana have regard* 
edSihkbya and Yoga as stages leading to 
V e d & n t a. German mysticism also, whether it ap« 
pears as the realistic monism of Haeckel, who sees 
in matter the one noumenon of the universe, or the 
more popular Pantheism of many modern philoso* 
phers, discounting as it does the abiding value of the 
individual, arrogates to itself the title of final truth 
and calls all individualistic or dualistic theories em- 
pirical. This is absurd. Both monism and dualism 
are equally valid explanations of the cosmos. It is 
a question of individual temperament which expla* 
nation appeals to one. The human mind which 
forms general concepts to explain the cosmos to its 

( "7 ) 

own satisfaction is swayed by the temperaments. 
The man of the rich, emotional cast of mind whose 
fiaaiaspring is his love to the Lord of the universe, 
whose greatest pleasure is service of the Lord of his 
heart follows the path that leads to monism ; for to 
him everything is his Lord, all beings, conscious or 
onconcious, but the Lord's body, and he thus reaches 
the concept of the one noumenon. If he shuts 
himself out of touch with the spiritual side of the 
universe and thus cannot reach the conception of 
t$vara, he invents the idea of nature or clothes with 
flesh the abstract idea of humanity and erects them 
as the objective of his emotional outflow. On the 
ether hand, the man of the stern intellectual cast of 
mind prefers the path of meditation, trains himself 
in V i V e k a, distinction of Self and Not-self and 
reaches the dualistic interpretation of the cosmos. 
He may, like the A d v a i 1 1 try to explain away the 
Not-self as really illusory and only empirically true 
and thus reconcile his theory with monism, but he 
is a dualist all the same, for his path is one of dis- 
crimination. Nor must we forget that after all both 
theories are but concepts of the mind, and not ex- 
periences of the spirit Before the spirit can realise 
itself or the devotee can realise his Lord, Manas 
has to be transcended and the stage of theorizing 
9ias to be passed ; and when there is realization, con* 
cept-making is neither necessary nor possible. 

( n8 ) 

Section III. Agama. 
The early Vedic religion was a cult of magic, a 
system of propitiation or constraint of Nature- powers 
(D e V a s)by means of sacrifices (Y a j fl a s), offerings 
of animal fat (g h 1, v a p ^, etc.) and fermented liquor 
(S o m a), poured into fire regarded as the mouth of 
the Gods, and accompanied with the chanting of 
mantras. Some of these mantras were incanta- 
tions of praise, and others combinations of sound 
having no meaning, being sometimes ' inarticulate- 
cries ("like the bellowing of a bull, etc."). They 
were believed to please or constrain the D e v a s- 
and thus to secure the fulfilment of the sacrificer's 
desires, whether these were the acquisition of 
material objects in this life or the enjoyment of 
pleasures in post-mortem states (Svarga). In 
the alignment of the Yajila S&li, the sacrificial, 
hall, were embodied the early notions of the struc- 
ture of the Macrocosm, for even in the earliest days 
the idea of the world being a macrocosm and the 
individual man being a microcosm, a minified copy 
of the cosmos, was worked out. The well-known 
Purusha SAkta which though later than the 
earliest hymns is certainly much anterior to the age 
of the Upanishads, proves this. " The moon sprang 
from ( the Cosmic P u r u s h a' s) manas ; from (his) 
eyes the sun was born ; from (his) month I n d r a 
and Agni, from (his) pr^na, vftyu was born. From- 
(his) navel was the middle region (antariksha) 

( "9 ) 

from (his) head was the sky; from (his) feet the 
earth, the quarters from (his) ears." (/?. T. X. 90. 
13, 14). This subject is referred to in numerous pas- 
sages of the Vedas ( Vide Sat. Brdh. X. iii. 3. 8., XIV. 
2. 13. R, V. X. 16. 3. etc.). Since all the gods were re- 
presented in the human body, methods of getting 
into communion with them other than by means of 
sacrifices were Invented. These attempts were, in 
the first instance, but the conversion of the b a h 1 r • 
yftga, outer sacrifice, into antary&ga, inner 
sacrifice, b^hyapOja (exterior worship) into 
m&nasapfija (mental worship!. The intermediate 
stage between bahiry&ga and antaryftga 
is represented by the following quotation from 
Satapatha BfdkmanaXl,\\.6, 13. *'One should 
say 'this is the Deva yAji' and 'this is the 
Atma yftji. He istheAtmay^ji (lit : self- 
sacrificer) who knows, *by this rite this member of 
my body is rectified ,' * by this rite this member of 
my body is restored '...He is the devaydjl (god- 
sacrificer) who thinks ' i worship the gods with this» 
I offer (it) to the gods; ... (The latter) does not 
conquer so great a world as the other." Gradually 
the form of sacrifice was kept up but transferred to 
the region of the mind. An early example of this 
is quoted from Tait. Aran, III. i., where is describ- 
ed the c h i d y & g a by means of which Praj^patt 
created the world. " Thought (was) the sacrificial 
ladle (sruk); chitta (mind), — the g h i ; voice 

( I20 ) 

(v i, k\ the altar (v e d i) ; purpose, the grass on the 
altar ; desire, the fire ; knowledge, the* (second) fire ; 
the Lord of voice, the h o t ft (priest) ; manas, the 
Upavaktft (assistant priest) ; pr ft q a, the offering ; 
equanimity, the a d h v a r y u." From these were 
developed the genuine vidyfts, methods of medita- 
tion, which are collected in the various Upanishads^ 
each of which contains the vidyfts traditionally 
taught in the Vedic School to which it belongs. 
Meanwhile other influences worked on the 
^indu mind and carried religious thought io 
other directions. The multifarious gods of the 
Vedas were grouped under three classes, thus 
laying the foundation of the later doctrine of the 
T r i m A r t i • The irrepressible instinct for unify- 
ing the multiform cosmic phenomena under one 
grand concept also worked from very early times 
and thus was evolved the idea of B r a h m a , the 
indefinable reality behind the D e v a s , the power 
that resides in the Mantras and hence can be 
utilized by the Mantravit, the knower of the 
Mantras, the Brfthmana, for the purpose 
of constraining the D e v a s , the same power that 
in the Macrocosm drives the Universe. " Through 
fear of Him the wind blows, through fear the sud 

* Upaniflhad meang literaUy 'sitting near by.* As the sitting 
poftiire (Asana)is absolately necessary for the practice of most 
▼ idy As {Vei, 8iU. IV. i. 7-10), the word Upanishad came to meas 
«rTidya or a collection of Tidy Ai, 

( 1" ) 

goes ; through fear of Him, A g n i and I n d r a 
(do their work), and Death ruDS, the fifth/' {Taii. 
Vp. II. V. J.) This same Brahma is the power 
within the innermost Self of the man. " Who 
dwells in the Earth, is other than the earth, whom 
the earth knows not, whose body the earth is, who 
rules the earth from within, he is thy A t m ft » 
the inner ruler, the immortal." {Br. Up. III. vii. 3.) 
** Who dwells in the (individual) Self, is other than 
the Self, whom the Self knows not, whose body 
ttie Self is, who rules the Self from within, he is thy 
Atmft, the inner ruler, the immortal." (73. IIL 
vil 22.) This identification of B r a h m a with the 
A t m ft , of the God of the Universe with the God 
within the man, led to the development of the 
Supreme Science, the Parftvidyft, which is the 
specific V e d ft n t a discipline and attempts to 
soar to the greatest heights of meditation man is 
capable of. 

But it is very few that can seek the Supreme 
in the silent recesses of tha heart. In most men 
Ihe senses run out, not towards the Self; and they 
seek Brahma in the Cosmos without, in the 
world of object and not the subject. When the 
I^aramfttmftis thus thought of as the object He 
appears as the power of Nature, for That can never 
•>ccome the object, but is " the consciousness, to be 
reached by consciousness (in-turned), seated in the 
fccarts of air {Bhag. Gttd xiii. 17). Search for 

( I" ) 

Him outside as Indra did. "He ran to That. That 
vanished from his view. He beheld in that very 
space, a woman, very brilliant, U m ft of golden 
hue." {Kena Up, iii. ii, 12.) She is the Supreme 
power " by which this Universe is upheld," sym- 
bolized by Gftyatrl in Chh. Up. iii. 12 and Brih. Up. 
V. 14. This concept of $ a k t i , the Power of 
Nature, was developed from the much earlier one 
of A d i t i , defined in the Nirukta as AdlnA 
devamlSitft, the mighty mother of the Gods. 
Even in the earliest hymns of the Rig Veda 
she is an embodiment of Power and the supporter 
of the Universe. She is described as ''the 
luminous A d i t i , the Supporter of the Earthy 
living in Heaven "(/?. V. L 136, 3). Not only is 
she the mother of the Gods, but she is "the great 
mother of the devotees (Suvr at An ft m), the mistress 
of the rites, the strong ip might, the ever-young^ 
the widely-extended, the protecting, the skilful in < 
guiding" {Vdj. Sam. 21. 5). When the power 
behind Nature and that of Mantras was erected 
into one objective entity — the world-mother, she 
absorbed all the functions of the ancient A d i t i . 
Gradually this idea, that Brahma if sought as 
an object, and not the subject of introspective 
vision is S a k t i, that the objective form of the 
One without form is Cosmic Power, grew and 
appealed to the religious imagination. S a k t i , 
Cosmic Power, became the recipient of worship^ 

( «s ) ' 

both outer and inner ; both PratlkaUpftsanA». 
worship of symbols in temples and at home, and 
M&nasap&ja of Ambft, the world-mother 
spread in the country* and largely supplanted Vedic 
Y a j ft a s . This gave birth to the literature of the 
A g a m a s (literally, revelations), also called 
T a n t r a s (lit. skilful acts). 

At the same time the ancient movement^. 

already referred to, of reducing the many Gods 

to three classes, each class under the headship of 

one chief God developed in different lines. The 

Nirukta of Y A s k a , and the Brihaddevata were 

the earliest attempts at what we may call the 

higher criticism ' of the VedaSy while portions of 

the Brdhmaifas represent the lower criticism. 

The critical movement of the Nirukta was 

snuffed out by a later ebullition of the mythoepic 

instinct, which seems so congenial to the Indian 

mind. The Nirukta taught, "There are three 

Gods, according to the expounders of the Veda^ 

Agni whose place is the Earth, VAyu or Indra, 

whose place is the middle region, and Siirya, whose 

place is the sky." In the Kenopanishad Agni, 

V4yu and Indra are spoken of as the chief Gods. 

This must have been the general belief in the age 

when the hymns of the Rigveda were compiled 

into a S a m h i t a (collection), for we find that the 

• The horrible images and bloody rituals of the Nature- 
f oddeflses of the Drayidians were also adopted in this worship. 

( 124 ) 

first hymns of eadi M a 9 d a 1 a of the Rigveda 
(except the ninth, devoted to S o m a) are those in 
praise of Agni, the next generally of VAyu and the 
last of Indra. In the Taittirtfa Upanishmd, Surya 
takes the place of Indra, but Indra (or $akra) 
continued to be a chief God during the age of 
Buddhism. Indeed he was worshipped in temples 
in Southern India and Jftva, in the early years of the 
Christian era, when Buddhism was the state reli- 
gion, as we find from Tamil Epics of eighteen 
hundred years ago. But long before this another 
T r i m a r t i had been worked out ; Brahaift» 
Vishnu and Siva who were minor dieties in] the 
Vedic age, Brahmft being called Brahma^aspati or 
Brihaspati, and Siva being: called Rudra, supplant- 
ed the earh'er Trinity. §iva absorbed the functions 
of Agni besides those of some popular Dravidian 
phallic deity and Vishnu those of Indra and Sfirya,* 
Later on, $iva with some and Vishnu with others 
became the chief person of the Trim&rti, on whom 
the heart might lean and round whose feet the 
emotions of the devotee might twine themselves. 
BrahmA, though one of the TrimOrti, the In- 
dian Trinity of the a^e that succeeded the final 

* lonumerable Vedic paiMiges proTe thAt Afiii ooftleieed With 

^▼a uid Indra and Surya with Qpendra, Vith^u. Kriihna*t defeat 

of Indra might refer to this latter incident. Brahmi oorretpoads 

ioVAya at he ii coemic Prina He is identified with the 

^tmofphere.».the region of V&yn in Atharw Sam, X- ii. 26. 

( "5 ) 

compilation of the Mahdbhdrata never became a 
supreme God like Vishnu or Siva. This has puzzled 
European Scholars who cannot understand why the 
creator, the first and greatest person of the Tri- 
nity in their religion, should be considered a second- 
ary person in the Hindu Trinity. The Hindu 
framed the concept of the one noumenon of the 
universe not as a person, but as a substance behind 
Sat and A s a t, personal consciousness and the 
unconscious {R. V. x. 129). Considered as an 
object of thought, the same was the active power 
behind the phenomenal universe, identical with the 
power of the m a n t r a s, the golden hued Brahmft, 
Brahmanaspati, the Lord of Hymns ( /?. V. ii. 23, u 
40 etc.), later on conceived as a female deity, $aktl.. 
Brahmft (male) never became a supreme personal 
God,for the jA&naYogls, men of the intellectual 
temperament naturally preferred the higher concept 
of Brahma (neuter), the Impersonal Reality behind 
the Cosmos to be reached by ftvrittachak* 
shult^, introspective meditation, as the eternal, 
immutable Subject, the & t m ft ; and the K a r- 
m a y o'g 1 s, men of the emotional temperament, 
when they did not worship Vishnu, the active 
God of the developing universe (the Vedic Siirya, 
the nourisher of ^11 that is) or $iva who mani- 
fests himself when the individual turns his back 
on the world and becomes an ascetic (the 
vedic Agni who burns the universe), preferred 

( 126 ) 

the concept Sakti, universal power as a wider gene- 
ralization than Brahmft (male), the same power ex- 
ercising the one function of creation. Another 
reason why Brahm^ did not attain to the position 
of Vishnu or Siva is that, being the creator, he is no 
«iore an active deity and could scarcely reward or 
punish his devotees. It is the hope of reward and 
fear of punishment that is the basis of most of what 
passes for B h a k t i (religious devotion) and Brah- 
ml could not satisfy these human emotions. In 
later times BrahmA was degraded to the position of 
an Individual Soul (jlvAtmi). Hence so few 
traces are found of any worship of Brahmft in India. 
The cults of Vishnu were callfid.JR h Agava t a o r 
P A fi c h a r A t r a and thg^ olJSiyaijJPJj upjita 
or Mclh e_§yaja^ These cults were in existence 
before the Christian Era. The Bh&gavatasare 
alluded to in an inscription of the second century 
before Christ. The MahdhhAratUy which most cri- 
tics now assign to the third century B. C, refers to 
the Pft$upata and of the Pftncharfttra sys- 
tems ; and the part of the Makdbhdrata where they 
are referred to is certainly not a later interpolation, 
but is at least as ancient as the bulk of the poem. 
These monotheistic movements, the Vaish^ava 
and §aiva, inspired by the need of a single, supreme, 
personal God felt by those who could not rise to 
the high levels of meditation on the absolute 
spread to South India, where they received a great 

( "7 ) 

accession of strength, especially when opposed to 
Buddhism, which they killed out after a severe 
struggle which lasted a few centuries. This great 
development of monotheism in southern India 
was perhaps influenced by the monotheism of the 
Semitic races with whom southern India had 
commercial intercourse from early times. The 
sterner and more repulsive features of $iiva as well ^CimJ-^ 
as the extremely realistic phallic emblems which re- ^.(ti.. 
present him remind us of the Jahve of the Hebrews, ^ 
and the sexual aberrations associated with Vishnu i 
worship remind us of similar excesses in the valleys 

of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Th e speci^ c ^^, ' 

tenets-oiJthc-PJLn_£_hja.r 4 1 r a and S a i v a,.^chQolsk .1 ^'^ 
were fbrnuijated. in Northern India, for we find 
them refer red to in the Mahdbhdrata and their 
technical terms are all Samskrit; but the move- L,^ ^ 
ments became all powerful in SoutheriTtncIia, from j**^^' 
whence they spread back to Northern India and j* 
have taken a more prominent hold of the Hindu ^ ; - 
imagination than any other of the numerous 
schools of thought or worship developed in India. 
The final extinction of Buddhism and obscuration 
of Jainism in India was due to these two waves of S^^i/r^/ 
Vishnu-worship and $iiva-worship that spread ^;-' 
North from the South about $ centuries after 
Christ. By that time Buddhism and Jainism 
were themselves choked with T a n t r a prap> 
tices, though without provision for devotion to 

( "8 ) 

a personal God and therefore easily gave way 
to Tftntrika religions which provided for this 
Bhakti, so necessary to the emotional man. 
These cults utilized the architectural developments 
of Buddhism and Jainism and hence arose the 
Temple architecture of southern India. This 
architecture was probably also influenced by the 
Egyptian temple architecture, for southern India 
had from early times a steady commercial inter- 
course with Egypt as with Babylonia. Temple 
ritual was elaborated on a grand scale. This 
ritual was primarily based on the ceremonies of 
fetish-worship of the Dravidian races, many of 
which are still observed in villages and under 
wayside-trees in all their primitive barbarism. 
Into the Temple-ritual was welded elements 
from the sacrificial ritual developed by the 
Aryan ]^ i s h i s. Thus was evolved the gorge- 
ous ritual of the Temples which more effectively 
killed out the Vedic Ya j fi as (sacrifices) than the 
gentle banter of the Sdhkhya and the Bhagavad* 
gttd or the more passionate denunciations of the 
founders of the Jaina and the Bauddha cults. Simi- 
larly the old fire-worship of the home (E k ft g n i 
g r i h y a ceremonies) gave way to domestic idolatry, 
a minified copy of the temple worship. And the 
V i d y & s of the Upanishads became supplanted by 
-mental worship of the two gods and the one goddess 
that now supplanted the innumerable gods of the 

( "9 ) 

vedic Pantheon and the countless local and tribal 
deities worshipped from pre- Aryan times. 

T he worshjp of $akti , §i va_ amd_ V |shBiL--by| 
means of meditation, and of symbols and idols ^Uji 5 
both in houses and temples gave birth to the three) ^^u, 
classes of A g a m as , called § ft k t a^ J§jl .W ajy(id{ ^.^^^-^ i 
P a lie harJ LtXJEU The A g a mas lik^the_J7^^«£- 
shads^jUL^re the_ultimate developments of^.theje^'i^r^^''^ *' 

Brdhma^as, (though _. ,thcy!_.- xoxitained otherl ^ L / 

elements, hesiries)-^ -hence th e fol lowers of ihey- » 
Agan^A^i^pols so.ught to prove their orthodoxy /^" 
by i nter pre tmg the U^anishads in accordance with 
their own tenets . They even gave the name of 
S a m h i t a to them, as also the name 
S m r i t i, thus indicating their claim to be, whatthey 
really were, based on and regularly evolved from 
tradition. This mo vement gave birth Jo mpst-of d^i 
the later UpanishadSy which unlike the earlier ones a..-,, / 
do not denominate the Supreme Being Param A ^ , 
Brahma, but are expressly Vaishnava, $aiva or 
$ftkta in their tone and are probably in many cases 
but A g a m a s under the name of Upanishads, 
Many of the A g a m a s themselves are called 
Upanishads^ though not included in the recog- 
nized 108. 

The Bhagavadgita which is called an Upanu ^^^ 
shad, also the S m jri t i, par txcellence, and the ^ ^/ ' 
Svetd^vatara Upanishad are works of Vedftnta, '^ '^^ 
but show clear traces of the influence of the ^ . ' 

9 . ' '' '" 

( I30 ) 

A g a m a s . Garbe has pointed out the influence 
of the BhAgavata (Vaishnava) Agamas on the 
former. The latter bears equally cleai L_traces o f 
the influepce of the $aiY^.^ult Both works seem 
to be due to an ancient synthesizing movement in 
which was attempted a higher standpoint than the 
monism of the UpanishadSy the pluralism of the 
S i ii k h y a and the Vaiseshika and the three 
ta 1 1 V a s (triple reality) of the A g a m a Schools, 
a standpoint from which all three can be reconciled 
and treated as different aspects of the higher point 
of view. 

( ^^ ^ The influence of the A gamasorTantras, as 
they are more familiarly known, on Indian life has 
been profound. The living Hindu reli gion of to- 
day from Cape Coraorin tQ.i2iieT^emotest corne r s of 
Tibet is es.sentially Tantric. Even the few 
genuine V e d i c rites that are preseved and are 
supposed to be derived straight from the Vedas e.g. 
the S a n d h y a, have been modified by the addition 
of T fin trie practices. Equally profound has been 
the influence of the Ag a m a s on the development 
of Vedftnta philosophy. Sa&kara was a pr ofesse d 
$'& k t a and his a d v a i t a exposition of Jthe 

•^ V e d a n t a , though overtly independent- . of the 
^&kta Agamas, is influenced by T ft n t r i c 
theories and his discipline by T ft n t r i c practices. 
R^m&nuja who, according to Dr. Thibaut, expounds 
a less forced form of Ved^nta and more near to the 

( 131 ) 

ideas of B&darftyana, the author of the Veddnta 
SUtras^ than $afikara, was a Vaishnava 
and regarded the Vaishnava Agamas as 
authoritative, though he too seldom quotes them 
to support his exposition. Madhva is so much 
under the A g a m a influence that his Bhdshya is 
but a string of A g a m a texts with a few words 
thrown in here and there to connect them. j^ 

The Agamas have all been kept secret, very /, ^ ' ^ 
few having been printed or being easily available ^., ^ . 
in Mss, The names_jQ£_ 058 PAnchar4tra 
Agamas, ^]§aiva Agam^ and 77 §ak t a f ^"^ / 
Agamas are given as tEe "authoritative books of 
these schools. Hundreds more are quoted in the 
commentaries of the few books that one can get 
at The few Agamas that are available now 
belong to different ages. The Lakshmt Tantra, 
for instance, among the Vaishnava Agmas 
which is predominantly S ft k t a in tone, the 
P&dma Santhita, which is nearer to a d v a i t a 
than the modern Vaishnava relishes, being 
decidedly ancient, and the Par&^ara Samhita 
and the Bhdradvdja Samhita which are high- 
ly sectarian and support specific recent tenets 
being decidedly of a very late age. In the 
case of the § a 1 v a and S A k t a Schools, their 
common tenets are so many and specific dif- 
ferences so few that this test of age cannot be 
applied, but many of the existing A g a m a s are 

v^ ' 

( 132 ) 

interior to the age of §aiikara. 

And we must also remember that, in the case 
of these writings, as in that of the Rdmdya^a, 
the Mahdbhdrata, the Purdfias and the metrical 
Smritisy portions of the substance are very 
ancient, but the form has grown with time. 
The contents of the A g a m a s are of unequal 
value. Here and there we meet with snatches of 
high philosophy, subtle psychological analysis of 
. •' ecstatic mental states, and valuable descriptions of 
centres of p r ^ n a and lines of force in the subtle 

. body, but the bulk of the A gam as is but grovell- 
ing superstition, mostly of a revolting form, and end- 

^ less details of dull ritual. Besides the A g a m a s,^ 
this school has given birth to a whole series of philo- 
sophical works — of S&tras, K^rikAs,* BhA- 
s h y a s, V r i 1 1 i s and VArttikas, besides in- 
dependent works — an immense literature jealously 
guarded from the prying eyes of the modern inves- 

/ • A S A t r a is ordinarily a series of extremely brief prose apho- 
' risms, generally unintelligible without a Commentary. A K ft r i k i 
\ gives the substance of a S (i t r a in verse form and is also terse. 
/A BJb ft 8 h y a is the exposition of the supposed teachings of a 
- S € t r a but really the teachings oftheBhftshyakftra suppor- 
ted by a great wealth of argument and quotation. A Vritti 
is a further exposition of the same. A Bhftshyakftra always 
strikes out an original line of thought and twists the S d t r a as 
he likes ; but aVrittikftra is supposed to follow the lines of 
aBhftihya. AVftrttikais generally a V r i 1 1 i in verse 
form. A T i p p a 9 1 contains brief explanations on a S ti t r a , 
en the lines of some B h ft s h y a. 


{ 133 ) 

tigator, but slowly sacrificed to the omnivorous , . 

The A g a mas are geuerally divided into four ^ /• « 
parts (pftdas,)Jflana,Yoga,Kriya, and 
C h a r y a. ^'J ft a n a is knowledge of the Lord ; 
that knowledge is called release" {Pddma Safft- 
hita I. il 6. ) "Yoga is the restriction (ban- 
d b a ) of the unagitated c h i 1 1 a to one subject " 
(73. II. i. 3.) "KriyA (embraces all acts) from 
ploughing the ground ( for laying the foundations 
<A the temple) to establishing (the idol ) {lb. III. 
i. 6 ). C h a r y A is "the method ot worship" (/*. 
IV. i. \). The §aivaAgamas regard that the 
last three parts together constituttf T a p a s to be 
learnt from a human teacher and that the first, 
i. e., J fi a n a can be taught only by Siva who comes 
as the G u r u to the ripe disciple at the psycho- 
logical moment and gives him an initiation (D i k- 
^hl) into wisdom. 

In the earlier A gam as of all the three 
cults the Supreme Real Being of the Universe, 
corresponding to the Brahma Paramam 
of the Upanishads and called NSrlyanain the 
Vaish^stva tantras and Mahesvara or 
S i v a in the other two tantras retreats to the 
background and all cosmic functions are attributed 
to $ a k t i treated as his wife but the really the 
predominant factor. 

But in the V a i s h n a V a and § a i v a schools 



( 134 ) 

^ V* the male god soon acquired a prominent posi- 
V^^^ tion and they also broke up into different sects. 

^ Yet these numerous schools have some common 

characteristics: They acknowledge three tattvas — 
ultimate realities, (i) A supreme _Being with the 
male or female aspect predominant. (sXUXfi^l^s^ 
of individual souls (3} the ^ohji^ctive Universe. 
These three Realities (tattvas) are given different 
names in the different schools, but their attributes 
and mutual relations do not vary much, though the 
terminology varies from school to school. These 
schools are also all agreed in opposing the M i y ft- 
"v d d a, the doctrine of the unreality of the world, 
developed from the teachings of Gaudapdda and 
^ankara and reduced to absurdity by their modern 
followers. Says the Pauskkara Agama, ** If, (as 
the SAiikaras say) the world is an illusive appear- 
ance of conscious being, the effected world will be 
a hollow unreality ; how can the world which is 
established to be really existing by all methods of 
proofs be a false transmutation of consciousness" 
{lb. ii. 5). 

The A g a m a s do not regard the world' as a 
false show ; as Bhdskarardya says in Lalitd Sahas- 
randma Bhdshya^ under the name Mithydjagad 
adhtshfhdnd No. 735, •' Really according to the belief 
of the T a n t r i k a s , who hold (the doctrine that) 
the world (is) a transmutation of Brahma, the 
Universe is real ; because as there is absolutely no 

( I3S ) 

dffierence between Brahma and the world just as 
(there is no difference) between a pot and the clay 
(of which it is made)» the reality of the universe 
neccessarily follows from the reality of Brahma. 
As we accept that the difference (between Brahma 
and the Universe) is false, we accept ail the texts 
declaring non- difference. From the unreality of 
difference (between Brahma and the Universe) it 
follows that the relation of supporter and support- 
ed is false. Hence the Veddnta theory of the 
illusoriness of the world cannot be accepted." 

Intense B h a k t i, personal Devotion, to the- 
world-mother or to the world-father (whether called 
Mahfldeva ($iva), orNftrdyana, characterises 
these schools. The root of this attitude of B h a k- 
ti to a supreme Being can be traced to that 
spirit of the vedic IjL i s h i s, which made them 
praise as the Highest, whatever God, high or low, 
they happened to invoke at any time — the spirit 
which Max Muller has labelled Henotheism. The 
devdopment of the A g a m a schools gave a great 
impetus to B h a k t i by concentrating the atten- 
tion on one Deva and this resulted in an extreme 
development of B h a k t i, a devotion that ex- 
pressed itself in an absorbing love, a complete self- 
surrender, which the want of a sense of humour led 
to such ridiculous extremes that the devotee's life 
became one orgie of singing and dancing and worse. 
Another common characteristic of these A g a m a 

( 136 ) 

Schools is their intimate association with abaor- 
mal manifestations of the sexual instinct The 
emotional nature of man is the common root of 
devotion to a superhuman being as well as to 
human beings and the habit of self-abandonment 
to a divine being which grows with devotion easily 
degenerates into seli-abandoment of different kinds. 
Hence there exists in India to-day debased forms 
of S a k t i-worship, S i v a-worship, and V i s h- 
n u-worship much too revolting to be described. 

This devotional movement has, as in another 
countries, given a great stimulus to Art ; Temple 
architecture, especially in Southern India, and 
Lyric (devotional) Poetry, especially Sanskrit, 
Tamil and Hind! have reached a high order of 
perfection ; only for want of cultivation of the 
powers of observation, this poetry is not noted for 
any wealth of poetic images, but is oppressed, as other 
departments of life in India are, by a load of soul- 
suffocating convention. Music, Dancing (N4tya) 
and gesticulation (abhinaya) have also been 
evolved under the influence of religious devotion ; 
but the last art has degenerated into gross sensuali- 
ty as its modern expounders are the women euphe- 
mistically called ^slaves of the Grods (d e v a d 4 s i s) 
attached to the Southern Temples. 

The following notes regarding the early references to 9i?a 
and Yish^Q temples in inscriptions so far disoorered and 
deciphered have been drawn ap by my friend, Mr. T, A. 

( 137 ) 

-Gtopinftiha Row, of SHrftngam and are extremely usefaU 
Beferenoee to Ykhna-cnlt. 

1. Udayagiri cave inscription of dhala, eon 

of Yish^adAsa, grandson of Chhagala and vassal of tha 
Gapta King, Chandra Oopta II, dated the Oopta era 
82(401-2 A. D.) Sanskrit dedication of a rock-cnt 
shrine to Yisbnu. 

2. Bhitart stone pillar inscription of Skandagnpta, 
undated, recording the intallation of the image of the 
God Sarftgt and the allotment of a Tillage to it. 

3 1 Janlga4h inscription of Skandagnpta, dated 
G. E. 138 (457-8 A. D.) Repairs to the lake Sndarfana 
by the goyemor Par^adatta's agent, Ghakrap&lita. 
OhakrapAlita cansed to be bnilt a temple to Charabhrit. 

4. GangdhAr inscription of VisTakarml. dated 423-4 
A. D« The inscription belongs partly to the Vaish|miTa 
and partly to the ^kta (?) form of religion. It records 
that a person bnilt a temple for Yishna, the Sapta M&t- 
^as and a well of drinking water. 

5. £!ra9 stone pillar inscription of Bndhagnpta, 
G. E. 165(484r-5 A- D.) Erection of a dhrajastambha to 
Janlrdhana by a Mahftrljl Matriyish^n and his yonnger 
brother Dhanyayish^n* 

6. Khoh copper plates of Mahftr4j| SamkshobhiM 
G. E* 209(528-9 A- D- [begins with the famous '< twehe- 
kttered mantra " (Om namobhagayate Ylsndeyftya)^ of 
the Bhagavatas]. 

7. Kh6h copper plate of MahArftj& Jaganatha G- B- 

( 138 ) 

177 (496-7 A. D) Grant of the Tillage of Dhayashandi- 
ka to a number of Br&hmanas for the parpoee of a temple of 

8. Ehoh oopperplates of Mahiriji ^aryanitha Q, E. 
192 (512-8 A. D) 

9. Gafbwa stone inscription of O. E. 148 (467-8).. 
found in the Das&yatira temple. 

References to Siya-cnlt, 

1. TJdayagiri oaye inscription of Ghandragapta XL 
undated. Records the ezcayation of a shrine of Sambhu. 

2. Bilsad stone inscription of Eumlragupta of G. E. 
96 (415-6 A. D ) Records the building of a number of 
minor buildings in the temple of SwAml Mahfcsena. 

3. Bihar pillar of Skandagupta. 

4. Mandasor pillar of Yayodharma. 

5. Kosam (Kaus&mbi) inscription on the stone image, 
of the time of Bbtmayarma G. E. 139 (458-9 A^ D.) 

These facts show how much these two cults were adyan- 
ced in the Fifth century A. D. and that they must hafc 
had behind them many centuries of deyelopment. 

We shall now discuss the fundamental tenets 
of the A g a m a schools. 

i. The ^ftktaorDevlAgama 

(The 77 Agamas of this School are sub- 
divided into three, (i) 5 $ubhftgamas, also 
called S a m a y a , which teach practices leading 
to knowledge and liberation (2) 64 Kaul&- 

( 139 ) 

g a m a s , which teach disgustingly dirty practices 
supposed to develop magical powers (3) 8 
Misr&gamas, aiming at both. The 64 K a u 1 a 
A g a na a s are said to deal with occult arts, 
causing illusions, killing people by means of magic, 
exorcising demons, alchemy and sundry dirty 
practices of worship. They are called K a u 1 a , 
because they advocate the worship of $ a k t i re- 
siding in k u 1 a , the perineum. This is also called 
the left hand path. The eight Mi^raAgamas 
deal with $ r i v i d y ft also and are hence the 
mixed path. The names of these A g a m a s are 
Chandrakald, Jyotisvatl, Kalft- 
nidhi, Kulftrnava,Kule9var!,Bhuva- 
nesvarl, Bftrhaspatya, and D fi r v ft s a- 
m a t a. The five Subha ftgamas describe 
the right hand path, also called also S a m a y a 
ft c h ft r a, the worship of D e v ! throughout the 
sushumnft. They are the S a m h i t ft s named 
Sanatkumftra.* Philosophical ideas are 
referred to only incidentally in these A g a m a s 
but are apparently regularly expounded in the 
§aktiSAtras,a work which, it will be worth 
the while of Mss. hunters to bring to light. Nine 
S (^ t r a s from this work are quoted by B h ft s - 
kararftya in different places of his Lalitft 

* For fuller details regarding these works, Vide Lakshmt 
^ h a r a'fl oomments onSaandaryalahari^Sl. 31. 

( 140 ) 

Sahasran&ma bhftshya. The opening 
S (i t r a says, ** Consciousness, which is indepen- 
dence is the cause of the production of the 
Universe." Another S fi t r a says " when one 
does not realize this he gets confused by his own 
$ a k t i and enters S a m s i r a ." The next 
Sfttra adds, *'when he realizes it, and his 
mind is turned inwards and mounts up towards 
the knower, he reaches ( pure ) consciousness." 
The various stages leading to h'beration are in- 
dicated in the following: — "When one attains 
the bliss of (pure) consciousness, (he reaches) 
Jtvanmukti, which is unshaken identity with 
chit (pure consciousness^ though he retains the 
consciousness of body, p r ft 9 a etc." ^* This attain- 
ment of the bliss of (pure) consciousness (C h i d ft- 
n a n d a) is due to M a d h y a v i k ft s a ", /. ^., ''by 
the destruction of doubt." ''When he attains 
b a 1 a (power of will), he makes the universe his 
own." The last S fl t r a describes the goal of life 
to be " the attainment of the Goddess of True Cons- 
ciousness and the mastery over the C h a k r a s 
(the centres of energy)." Judged from these quo- 
tations the SaktiSAtras, if discovered, will 
prove a very valuable find. Many other works of 
this School are known only by name or by stray 
quotations by commentators]. 

The three tattvas (ultimates) of this school are- 
(i) An impersonal, inactive Being called P r a k ft a a 

( 141 ) 

or $ i V a (to be distinguished from the active $ i v a 
of the $ a i V a g a m a s), of the nature of pure cons- 
ciousness like the Purusha of the S ft h k h y a 
School, but differing therefrom in being omnipresent 
(a k h i 1 ft n u g a t a). (2) an active^ personal Being, 
called Vimftr^a, Saktior Tripurft of the nature 
of Ptarnfthambhftva ( full egoity ), personal 
conciousness, who includes all individual souls ; she 
is also called Ahaintft, I-ness (3) The insentient 
universe of matter, also called Idamtft, this-ness. 
Illumination, power and object thus form the 
triune manifested universe. In the $ a i v a and V a i- 
shnava ftgamas, the first Being of this trinity 
is an active Being, and the Second, His S a k t i , 
occupies a subordinate position and in the latest 
developments of these schools almost disappears 
from view. The extreme S ft k t a view is embodied 
in the opening $ 1 o k a of Saundaryalahari. 
"Siva, when he is united with S a k t i , is able to 
create ; otherwise, the God is unable even to move." 
Kshemarftja inhisSivasOtra Vimar?inl», 
quotes the following from the Mrityujidbhat- 
t^raka. **That Parftjakti, my Ichchhft, 
potent, born of Nature (S v a b h ft v a j ft) is to be 
known as heat in fire, as of the form of the 

• ABhEshyaby Kshemaraja. a writer of the ilth Century, 
A. D. on the S !▼ a S ii t r a s, supposed to have been discoTered 
or perhaps composed in the 10th Century by Vasugupta, the 
founder of the f8TaraPratyabhijn& system of Cashmere. 
This work has been edited and translated by me and published 
by the Theosophical Publishing Co., Adyar, Madras. 

( 142 > 

rays In the sun, that Saktl is the cause of 
all the worlds.'' Another famous t antra says, 
" T r 1 p u r a is the Supreme S a k t i, antecedent 
to j ft a n 4 and other § a k t i s, O dear one. She 
is differentiated as gross and suotle and becomes 
the mother of the origin of the T r i 1 o k ! (triple 
experience of man). Her form is that wherein the 
totality of the (36)tattvas is dissolved. All 
evolution being hers, the Supreme is not required 
(to be active in the world process). The Supreme 
(Siva) devoid of S a k t i, is unable to do anything. 
He becomes omnipotent when he is united to 
§ a k t i . O, Supreme Lady, without § a k t i, the 
subtle (unevolved, potential) Siva has no name or 
support. Even though (he is) known, OMahAdevl, 
there is no use (lit. no gain of name or virtue). 
When he is meditated on, (there results) no grace, 
no steadiness of mind. When she is in the 
supreme path, she is of subtle form and thence 
attains the states of the seed and the plant (the 
subtle and gross universes) which had been absorb- 
ed in her." ( Vdmake^vara Tantra iv. 4-9)-* 

A Ms8 copy of this work, also called NitySsho4^ikAr' 
pavatn (the Ocean of the 16 Nitya goddesses) and its commen- 
tary « by Bh4skarar4ya, called Setubandham (the baildlng of the 
bridge) has been kindly placed at my disposal by Dr. O. Schrader 
of the Adyar Library, 'fhis work is divided into two parts called 
p^vachatu§satt and XTttaraehatn§§att Lakshmidhara, a eom- 
xnentator on SaMTidaryalahari says that the VamakesTara Tantra 
is a part of the Agama called Bhairava y4mala. (Vide page 17. 
Mysore Edition of Saundarydlahari. ) 

( 143 ) 

Prak&sa and Vim a r 9a are explained by 
Bhdskararftya (the famous sAkta scholar of the 
iSth century, who was a pandit of the Tanjore 
Court and who has been already referred to) in 
his Bhdshya on Vimar^arHpifft^ 548th name in 
LalitdsahasranAma. " The spontaneous ( s v ft- 
b h ft V i k a) vibration of Parabrabmai who 
is Pr&kftBa, is called Vimar$a. It is said 
in the Saubhagyasudhodaya^ 'His Sakti is 
spontaneous vibration, v i m a r 9 a. It is she that 
creates the mobile and the immobile (creatures of) 
the universe, and also destroys this world." The 
third member of this trinity, matter, is defined and 
subdivided as in the SAhkhya School. In fact the 
Agama schools have completely absorbed the 
Sdhkhya philosophy so far as the analysis of the 
material universe is concerned. They have elabo- 
rated them in sundry directions and superadded 
other tattvas to those of the Sd^hyas and thus, to 
some extent, destroyed the clarity and philosophi- 
cal purity of the Sdhkhya concepts. Instead of the 
25 tattvas of Sdikhya this school divides the 
universe into thirty-six tattvas (principles) which 
will be explained in the next chapter. These 
thirty-six t a 1 1 v a s are again classified as three 
tattvas (ultimates), called (i) Sivatattva, the 
supreme, (2) Vidy& tattvas, the subtle manifesta- 
tions of Sakti K'oA (3) A tm& tattvas, the 
material universe starting from M ft y d and ending 

( 144 ) 

with the earth. These three ultimates are the same 
asPrakft^a, Vimar^a and Idamtd. These 
three concepts are very clearly explained by 
Bhftskarardya in his Bhdshyd on his own Vari- 

'^B r a h m a called Prakdsais the pure know- 
ledge resulting from the consciousness implied in the 
first person in 'I desire ', ' I know, etc. It is asso- 
ciated wfth Omniscience, Lordship, Omnipotence, 
Plenitude, Immanence, and other powers. The 
vibration of a ray of Prakd^a of the nature of 
bliss is called Parfthamtft, the Supreme Egoism, 
Vimarsa, the Supreme Lalitd, Bhatt^^'^kft, 
Trip ura-Sund art [names of the world- 
mother ]. It is said in the Vi^va^aftta Skandha 
of Virftpftksha Pafichd$ika "Lordship is Omni- 
potence ( Power of Action), Self-dependence and 
consciousness. These are said by $ a m b h u to 
be the names of P a r & h a m t d. As objectiv- 
ity CidamtA, literally, this-ness) is not mani- 
fested without the subject ( A h a m t d lit, I- 
ness) on account of the relativity of I and 
This (Self and not-self ), the object, which is the 
content of the notion "this*, is caused by the power 
of Ah a m t a (the subject; or by Brahma who 
is other than it. That object is evolved from it," 
{Varivasyd-rahasya, commentary on I. 3.) 

Prakd^ais illumination ; it is the purest dis- 
tillate of experience or rather the attenuation of 

( 145 ) 

experience to purest consciousness of Being, the 
barest consciousness without being stained by the 
least touch of relativity; the nearest approach to 
Pure Being, to the Absolute that human thought or 
human language can hope to reach. 

A m b a ( the world-mother ) is the first appear- 
ance of a vibration in the absolute P r a k A s a , the 
first assertion of relation, of Vimar§a, distinc- 
tion, which gives birth to all this universe. She 
is the power (S a k t i) latent in Prakisa begin- 
ning to manifest herself and give birth to Gods, 
men, and other beings. The motion that starts from 
A h a m t a goes over to the other pole of I d a m t A, 
( This-ness ) objectivity, matter. These three ul- 
timates of the T^ntrikas, Illumination, Power, 
and Object may be compared to Hegel's three doc- 
trines of Logic — Being, Essence and Notion, and 
Idea. " Being is the notion implicit only ; its 
special forms have the predicate * is* ... Pure being 
makes the beginning ; because it is on the one 
hand pure thought, and on the other immediacy 
itself, simple and indeterminate ; and the first 
beginning cannot be mediated by anything, or be 
further determined... Being-for-self, as reference to 
itself, is immediacy, and as reference of the nega- 
tive to itself, is a self-subsistent, the One... The 
terms in essence are always mere pairs of correla- 
tives, and not yet absolutely reflected in themselves: 
hence in essence the actual unity of the notion is not 

( 146 ). 

realized, but only postulated by reflection. Essence, 
which is Being coming into mediation with itself 
through the negativity of itself is self-relatedness 
only in so far as it is in relation to an other — this 
other however coming into view at first not as some 
thing which is, but as postulated and hypothe- 
tised — Being has not vanished : but firstly, Essence, 
as simple self-relation, is Being, and secondly as 
regards its one sided characteristic of immediacy, 
Being is deposed to a mere negative, to a seeming 
or reflected light — Essence accordingly is Being 

thus reflecting light into itself The Essence 

lights up in itself or is mere reflection : and there- 
fore is only self- relation, not as immediate but as 
reflected. And that reflex relation is Self-Identity 
...Essence is mere Identity and reflection in itself 
only as it is self-relating negativity, and in that 
way self-repulsion. It contains therefore essen- 
tially the characteristic of Difference. The Notion 
is the power of the substance self- realised. It is 
a systematic whole, in which each of its consti- 
tuents functions, is the very total which the notion 

is The onward motion of the notion is no 

longer either a transition into, or a reflection on 
something else, but development. The realisation 
of the notion, — a realisation in which the universal 
is this one totality withdrawn back into itself and 
which has given itself a character of * immediate 
unity by merging the mediation: this realisation 

( 147 ) 

of the notion is the Object." {The Logic of Hegel ^ 
2nd Edition trans, by Wallace, Sect. 83, 84, 86, 96, 
112, IIS, 116, 160, 161, ^93). 

ii The Saiva or MAhesvara Agama 

The Saiva schools are so intimately allied to \ ^^' ' 
the S & k t a schools that the literature and doctrines j^^ '^ 
of one are quoted as authoritative by the other. The \ 
chief characteristic of the Saiva school is that 
S i V a is the predominant Being and, especially in \^ 
the later developments of these schools, S a k t i is ^'' '* 
almost a negligible factor of the cosmos. The ' 
characteristic Theism of the Agama schools 
led to S i V a being regarded as the Final cause of 
the Universe. But the Saiva system became ^^l^-^ 
divided into three different schools in regard to .\ .. ^ 
the qUestfoh'Tiow far causal efficiency belongs to 
the will of §iva and how far to the actions bf ^~~*-— - 
beings. ^.-^, ^ 

These schools are called Cx)^e L a k u 1 ! « a- 
Pd§upata school of Guzerat, which prefers to 
call the Supr^e Being P a 9 u p a 1 1 (lit the Lord 
of cattle); (a^ihe Saiva Sid dbftnta of South- 
ern India, intimately allied to the §ftkta; ... 
(3)^he Pratyabhijfift school of Kashmir, so- \. 
called because the fundamental teaching of the sect 
is that pratyabhijfia (recognition) of the Lord 
in the knower as well as in the known leads to 

( 148 ) 

(^ With regard to the question of the respective 
\ causal efficiency of $ i v a and of Karma, the 
'P&^upata School maintains that Siva is a 
cause independent of the actions (karma) of 
individuals but that "the efficiency of actfons 
. depends upon (an individual's) power of action 
(kriyft-^akti) being unobstructed on account 
of conformity with the infinitely potent will of 
the Lord'' {Sarvadar^ana-samgraha chap, vi). 
The Siddhftnta school regards Siva as the 
Universal agent, but not irrespective of indi- 
vidual Karma. "(The fruition of) the two (/. e, 
good and bad) actions reaches (individual) souls 
by the order of the Highest ; His dependence on 
the karma of the individual does not detract from 
His independance, just as a king's depending on 
his guards to protect his city does not detract from 
the royal power ; just as the holder of a magnet 
directs the m9tion of a needle, so the Lord directs 
the fruits of actions to the proper persons." (condens- 
ed from a lengthy discussion in S i v a j fi a n a 
bh4shyam,a Tamil commentary of the i8 cen- 
tuary on Meykanda Deva's Tamil S <i t r a s called 
. Sivananabodam^ earlier than the 1 3th century). The 
^ Pratyabhijfia schools conceive Mahe$vara to 
create the universe, "by mere force of desire", for he 
is of "unobstructed power, bliss and independence." 
This school, therefore, denies causal ^ciency to 
all but the will of M a h e § var a. 

( 149 ) 

This difference of starting point has led to a 
wide divergence of views with regard to the nature 
and relations of the three metaphysical ultimates 
that compose the manifested universe. 

(i) The PAsupata School. 

The three ultimates are called by the followers 
of this school, the cause, the effect and the defect 
The Sarvadar^anasamgraha quoting from the com- 
mentary on the first sOtra of this sect, " Now then we 
shall expound the rules of Pft$upatayoga of 
P a $ u p a t i," says, " P a § u means the effect, for it 
depends on something ulterior; Pati means the 
cause, (K ft r a n a) the Lord, for he is the cause of the 
world, the Ruler." " The cause is the author of crea- 
tion, destruction and sustenance ( of the world, the 
effect). On account of differences of quality and 
action he is subdivided into Pati, Sftdhya 
etc. His Lordship consists in infinite knowledge 
and power, eternal supremacy, being the First of 
beings, possession of power, not adventitious, etc.'* 
"The Effect (K4rya) is threefold, Vidy4 
(sentiegcy), Kaia (the insentient), Pa?u (the 
sentient). Sentiency (Vidyft) is the charac- 
teristic of P a ? u. It is two fold, according as it is of 
the nature of Knowledge (b o d h a), and Ignorance 
(a b o d h a). Knowledge is (again) two fold, accord- 
ing as its procedure is discriminative (viveka) 
or indiscriminative (a v i v e k a). Discriminative 

( 150 ) 

procedure which is based on evidence is called 
c h i tt a. By means of c h i 1 1 a, all living beings 
cognize objects discriminate or indiscriminate 
when they are illuminated by the light of ex- 
ternal objects * Ignorance, again, is either charac- 
terized or not by the objects of the P a ? u * The 
insentient (K a 1 A), while depending upon the sen- 
tient, is unconscious. It is, also, two- fold, what is 
called the effect and what is called the cause. 
Therein, what is called the effect is ten-fold, 
the five tattvas, Prithvt (earth) etc., the five 
qualities, colour etc. What is called the cause is 
thirteen-fold, the five organs of Cognition, the five 
organs of action, the triple Antaitjikarai^a, 
Buddhi, Ahamkftra and Manas having 
the functions of certitude, self-cognition and desire. 
Pasu is what is under bondage. It is, also, two-fold» 
the displayed (S a fl j a n a) and the undisplayed. Of 
these, the displayed are those that are associated 
with bodies and organs ; the undisplayed are de- 
void of them." "Mala (defect) is an evil condition 
pertaining to the soul. It is of five kinds, false 
conception etc. It is said (by Haradatta) that 'false 
conception, deviation from duty, attachment, in- 
terestedness, and falling (from the path), these five 
are the root of bondage, to be specially shunned in 
this system.' " (Jb. Chap vi). Besides the Pa^u- 

* The reading of these two sentences is corrupt and the trans- 
lation is unsatisfactory. 

( iSi ) 

pati SUtras^ Mddhava quotes, as authorities of this 
system, Haradattdchftrya, and Nakultja * the author 
of Panchirthabh&shyadtpika and Adar^a about 
whom nothing is known. 

{2) The Saiva Siddhanta School. 

The doctrines and religious practices of this 
school are propounded in 28 Saiva Agamas, 
a number of treatises on the Saiva philosophy 
and aBhftshya by Nllakantha on the 
Ved^nta SAtras on $aiva lines (usually 
called $aiva Vi^isht&dvait^ besides a 
voluminous Tamil h'terature, produced during the 
last 1,500 years and perhaps more interesting as 
literature than as philosophy. The cult of $ i v a is 
*' the living system which exercises at the persent 

day a marvellous power over the minds of the j 

great majority of the Tamil people.'^f It is " the 
most elaborate, influential, and undoubtedly the 
most intrinsically valuable of all the religions of 

The nature and relations of the three ultimates 
according to this system, are well-explained in 

• The proper form of this name is Lakalisa, synoDymous with 
Da^^&yndha, changed into Nakalisa, in Eastern and Southern 

t Pope's Ti ru-Y^ saga m p. ix. 

§ Tl' p. Ixxiv. 


( IS2 ) 

the Mipigendra Agama,* which is the 
jfi^na p&da (section deah'ng with knowledge) 
of the K ^ m i k a, the first of the S a i v a 
A g a m a s. " S i v a is beginningless, free from 
/ defects (m a 1 a), the all-doer, the all knower, removes 
from the individual soul (here called, a n u, atom, 
from its limitation), the web of bonds that obscure 
its nature. {M'rig, Ag, if. i). The whole S a i v a 
position is thus "condensed in this one sAt rat" 
{lb ii-2) Creation, sustenance and destruction 
of the Universe, obscuration (T i r o d h A n a), and 
liberation (of the individual soul), (these five) 
actions,§ with their agency and fruit are to be 
known as His. The creator of the world must be 
self- existent, otherwise there would be a regressus 
ad infinitum and there will be no final cause of 
M o k s h a. The essence of consciousness is the 
act of seeing (chaitanyam dyikkriyftrftpara) 
and it exists in the A t m d at all times and on all 
sides, for we hear that in the liberated, it is per- 

• This and a few other SaivaAgamas, have been printed 
with Tamil commentaries in Madras. The M|*igendra is being 
edited and translated by Mr. M . N^r^yaqLa8w§,mi Tyer, Madras, 
who kindly furnished me with advance proofs of the first xi chapters. 

t It is carious that S a i ▼ a writers give the name 8 ii t r a 
to S 1 o k 9 s. The Ifvara Pratyabhijnd S'&tra^ are a mixture of 
^ 1 o k a s and 3 il t r a s as we ordinarily understand them . 

§ The five functions are in the S a k t i S il t r a s, of course, 
Attributed to Her and called A b h a sa (illumination), R a kt i 
(coloration), Vimarsana ( Examination), Bljavasth&na 
<BOwing the seed) andViUpanata (lamentation .) 

if c 

( 153 ) 

feet. Though it exists, it does not manifest itself 
as such (iiT the unliberated), hence it is inferred 
that it is obscured ; and it is subject to one whose 
powers are not obscured (Pat i, the Lord), till it 
reaches liberation. The web of bonds (p & $ a j ft- 
I a m) is on the whole of four kinds, the enveloping, 
the will of the Lord, Karma, and the work of 
M ft y d. (Their) names indicate their nature. 
'\Mrig,Ag. ii. 3-7). 

The A g a m a discusses in chap iii. P a t i 1 a k- ; 
s h a n a m, the characteristics of the Lord. " As the ' 
body and other things are proved to possess the 
characteristics of products, we must infer that there 
exists their Maker, different from them. He is ever- 
lasting because He is not limited by Time; He is ^V 
not confined to one locality, because He is all-per- 
vading. He is possessed of powers of creating gra- k^' 
dually and simultaneously, because creation is both 
gradual and simultaneous. He possesses an instru- 
ment (K a r a n a), because no action is seen (accom- 
plished) without instruments. This (instrument) 
must not be taken to be adventitious, because the 
work has been without a beginning. This instrument ^ •: , 
is no other than S a k t i. S a k t i is not unconcious \ 
but a concious Being. As objects are infinite, she, 
(though) one, appears likewise (infinite) both in 
cognition and in activity. Action (creation &c. does 
not result from) the seed of preservation, creation 
etc. (K a r m a), or from P r a k ir i t i or from the in- 


( IS4 ) 

dividual soul (a n u) ; there only remains the theory 

that it is the work of the Great Lord, the Free. He 

is S i V a." {lb. iii. i-S). " Action always proceeds 

from an embodied actor; in the world we see 

w^. actions only of persons with bodies. Hence He, 

y I too, is like us. (But) the Lord's body is, unlike ours, 

;* J 1 one ofSakti; Mala etc. cannot attach themselves 

J to it ; that body is composed of the five Mantras 

i and subserve His five actions • ( lb. iii. 8.) ." " He is 

omnicient, because he is the Maker of all : for it is 

well-proved that one does a thing only when one 

knows the means, the consiluent elements and the 

results. His knowledge is not veiled in anything, 

hence does not require any aid to manifest itself. 

It is without doubts and never at fault." {lb, v. 

12,13). "S an kr a' s knowledge is not based on 

. perception, inference or authority. It shines pure, 

x^^ways, in all things," {lb, v. 15.) 

^ The second ultimate is the P a s u , lit. cattle, 
hence what is owned by, subject to, the P a t i , 
the Lord. " The earth and the rest are effects ; 
the Lord is the cause. They are no uae'-^^lfifir 
Maker ; nor to themselves because they AK^cons- 
cious ; nor are they purposeless, for that^ould be 
derogatory to their Maker. There only remains the 

^ The five mantras, Tait, Aran, x. 49. 47, called Sadyoj&ta, 
Vftmadeya, Aghora, Tatparusha, andts&na, respecti- 
yely corresponding to the five fanctions of creation, preservation, 
destruction, obscuration and liberation, are the forehead, the- 

mouth, the heart, the g u h y a and the feet of Siva. 

( IS5 ) 

theory that they are for the use of a third, difierent 
from both, the K s h e tXjaJLft a. The P a ? u , 
for whose sake the earth and other tEIngs exist, is 
not the body, for the body is unconscious and hence 
it follows that itself must be for the use of another. 
( The body ) cannot be a conscious being for it is 
an object of cognition (bhogy a) and liable to 
changes of state. Such things as cloth etc, which 
are objects of cognition and liable to changes of 
state are insentient. If it is said that the body is 
conscious, because while in the body, there is cons- 
ciousness of existence (Sadbhftva), (we reply 
that ) as there is no consciousness in a corpse, the 
body is unconscious. If it is said that consciousness , 
is one of a series of transformations (that the 
body is subject to ) (we reply ) that ( if so ), 
memory cannot be continuous. But ( continuous ) 
memory is well-known. Hence the one that re- 
members is other than the body. He is not con- 
fined ( to space ), not momentary, not one, not un- 
conscious, no non-actor, possessor of diflferentiated 
consciousness, for it is said that, after the destruc-,' 
tion of P a B a , he becomes Siva " { M rig: 
Ag. vi. 1-7) The P a s u , is, in his own nature, " the^ 

abode of eternal and omnipresent C h i t-s a k t i^ 

(/&^ii. S ). 

The third ultimate is P a a a , fetter, bond. It is " 
threefold, ( i) A v^i d y a , ignorance (2)Karma 
(3) Mfty^. Avidyfll is otherwise known as 

( IS6 ) 

Anavamala, the defect due to the ft t m A 
thinking that it is but A n u ( atom ), the taint of 
finiteness. The Atmft who is pure consciousness 
and Independence imagines himself to be finite, 
bounded by his body, of circumscribed knowledge 
and power. As Kshemardja explains, in his com* 
mentary on Siva Sfttrasi. 2, "Being infinite 

^ consciousness, he thinks, *I am finite* ; being Inde- 

"^ pendence, he thinks *I am the body (Anfttma)". 

\-1 Thus the Anava malaisof two kinds, ( a ) 

J^ Ignorance of thejfact that the A t m cl is conscious- 

: , ness (b) mistaking the body for the A t m ft , called 

respectively A k h y ft t i and Anayathftkhy- 

. ftti, non-cognition and wrong cognition. This 

f *' y1? ft ? a is described as a veil over the soul known by 
a variety of names, P a ? u t v a , bondage, P ft a u - 
n i h ft r a, mist round the pa$u,M|rityu, death, 
Mi^rchchhft, swoon, Mala, defect, A ft j a- 
n a , pigment, A v y i t i , envelope, R u j , malady,^ 
G 1 ft n i , depression, F ft p a , evil. Mala, root, 
K s h a y a, decay, etc. It is one in all beings, 
beginningless, dense, great, possessed of numerous 
powers ( S a k t i s ) residing in every souland perish- 
ing when their time is over. (Mrig.Ag. vii. 6-8), 
" The benign Mfthe$vart-Sakti, benign, 
blessing all, is included in the P ft $ a s, for they 
act in conformity with them". (16. 11), The 
five powers of the Lord are exercised only with 
reference to Pasus and are hence transforma- 

( iS7 ) 

tioDS (parinama)ofAvidyA. 

For the purpose of bringing about the libera- \ U' 
tion of the Individual soul, the Lord sets the ! ,^* ' 
m a I a s evolving ; so start the powers of creation, . ' - 
sustenance, destruction and obscuration of know- */- , 
ledge (tirodhftna orrodh4?akti); then the . 
§ a k t i evolves into A n u g r a h a, the power of 
benediction, in that individual from whom the 
powers of mala have departed and he becomes/ 
liberated. The Lord supports the m a 1 a s during, 
the whole course of their transmutations for the' 
ultimate good of the F a $ u s dependent on His j 
Grace, {lb, vii. 11-22). The Second PA^a or oi^/ 
mala. Karma, is described in chapter viii. It. 
is the cause of the conjunction of the conscigps ^ 
soul with the unconscious body. It is local (/. ^, 
not omnipresent), manifold, temporary, associated 
with individuals, and continuous throughout the 
births. I tjsan auxiliary of the first mala^ Avidyft. 
It is called karma, becpause it is produced by the 
activities of beings and ^adrishta (unseen), be- 
cause it is subtle (between the ending of the action 
and the beginning of the p h a 1 a, the reaction). 
It is the producer and sustainer of the body, the 
object of enjoyment. It is threefold (produced 
by the body, the speech and the mind). It \» 
good and bad, d h a r m a and a d h a r m a, accord- 
ing as it is based on truth or falsehood. It ripens 
durin|^ (cosmic) slumber, prevails during a K a 1 p a 


( 158 ) 

and merges in miyA during pralaya, but is 
never destroyed without being experienced (viii 
-^& The third among the malas is Mfty&ialso 
called B h e d a, difference. This is the Y o n i (Siva 
. Sa^. I 3), the womb of the world, the g ranthi- 
pa§a {Mrig Ag,\K, i), the knot that imgrisons" 
the Atm«i in ignorance. "It is single, the cause" 
of misery, the seed of the universe, possessed of 
many powers^ and obstructs the individual till the 
power of its auxiliary (karma) should cease ; it 
' is omnipresent and imperishable. For the same 
reason a creator is inferred from the nature of 
. the universe, it must follow that it has a material 
cause ; for there is no cloth without thread. It is 
unconscious for its products are known to be so.'* 
{lb. ix, 2-4). 

The Paushkata Agama^ describes the cate- 
gories (p a d ^ r t h a) of the $ a i v a School as foN 
lows:— "Pati, Kun^ali nI,M aya,Pa?u, Pftsa, 
and the causes (k & r a k a), these are briefly the 
six categories, in the $aivatantra s(|) That 
category is called Pati wjxose triple function is 
destruction, enjoyment and authority, which is 
unchanging in its nature, and possessed of powers 
(§aktisy^Kun^aIinl (ot herwise called, $ u d - 
dha Mdyft, Pure M&yi^) is that whence Pati 

The Jfianapadaof this work has been published in Madras 
with a Tamil commentary. 

( 159 ) 

gets destruction and other functions, by which the / 
Pure Path (S uddhAdhv ft) is produced, and she "^ , 
is the form where § a m b h u (§ i v a) is ever estab- ' ^ ^ ' \' 
lished(3/M A y ft (^ % U-^-^.'^A- .'jripurft ) «< thaf 
which produces bodies and^organs for making 
possible^experience and objects ; it is associated 
with men's k a r m a(2/P a su is characteriz ed by 
cognitiooiaction^ (d j i k k rij^4) obstructed by 
limitation and is threefold, Sakala, Pralayft- 
k a 1 a, and Vijflftnakal a.'QA'he fifth category, 
PAsa, is said to be the totality of principles 

^(tattvas) from kaia to the Earth (kshiti). 

j/ Excellent Rishis,the sixth category is, in the tantras, 
the supreme action VatledTriitlation (D Fk s h ft) 
whose fruit is experience, liberation and manifes- 
tation (of. each individual as $ i v a)." {Jb, i. 2-15). 

Suddha mfiyfi, otherwise, bind u (dot), • f ^ 
Kui^^al ijilXthfi-Coiled), Si va§akti, the Power - ... 
of S i V a, is a category intermediate between § i v a ,, 
that is Pure consciousness and Matter that is un- ' '"^ 
concious. She is " the U p A d h i, the cause of the 
differentiation of S i v a ' s function into destruction * - 
etc., described above {lb. ii-i.) She is the cause of 
the bonda ge of all beings ( a pu) from A n-aji Jt a 
(a person next to S i v a) downwards, and also of their 
release. But she is not the material cause of the h*M S 
)^orld because she is chaitanya, conscious , , 

More commonly, Vijfilliiakeyala, For a description of 
these three> viie infra* 

( i6o ) 

beings like S i V a and without transmutation like 
' matter. (73. ii.2-4). She is the eternal sound,* 
, " the subtle connecting link between words and con- 
cepts (/J. ii. 17). This eternal sound is divided 
into four kinds, called Vaikhari, Madhyamft, 
\ ,^ P a B y a n t i, and S ill k s h m A. V a i k h a r t is 
what becomes in the throat the sound that is 
heard by the ear and takes the shapes of letters. 
/:*' MadhyamA is the form of objects mentally 
) apprehended before they are associated with 
sounds. Pa§yant! is undHTerentiated like the 
yolk within the egg. S ft k s h m lif is the pure 
'^* T fi ^ n a S a k t i . {lb. ii 19-24). These are called 

X. Mour forms of V A k ( lit. Voice, sound ), one 
y\ V<^ ! <^bjective, the others subjective, and all produce 
; ^ \ states of consciousness of the P a § u . ( 73. ii. 25-26 ), 
V 'vyThe individual souls identify themselves with these 
/ forms of V A k and thus result the three M a 1 a s 
V (defects) which obscure cognition and action. 
. -^ (73. ii. 28-29). Kshemar^ja defines the three 

bonds to be the three cognitions, like * I am 
finite', *I am thin or fat', *Iam the sacrificer 
etc ', respectively illustrative of Anava, MAy^ 
and Karma Malas.J These fundamental 
cognitions of limitation, of identity with the body, 
and of actorship exist in the mind either in the 

• As oppsed to the rudiment of sound, Sabdatanm&^tra 
which is a product. f More commonly called P a r 4. 
X Com. Siii'Svt, i-4. 

> ( I6i ) 

form of words ( V a i k h a r i ), or of images 
(Madbyamft), or of vague states of consci- 
ousness not yet differentiated into clear- cut images 
(Pa^yantt) or, again, the mere possibility of 
such limited consciousness (SAkushmft). V&k, 
Sound in its four forms thus marks all the stages \\ 
of limitation of the individual soul. The names 
of the S a k t i s ( goddesses, energies of Siva) 
that preside over these and the mantras indicat- 
ing them are also combinations of V ft k. Hence 
Sj d d h a m ft y ft, the mother of the universe ^"^ r\ 
is supreme Vftk, the eternal sound; this is ^/^. 
the_ doctrine of Nftda, 'voice of the silence V' 
which is the basis of the § a i v a and S ft k t a 

P a$us (Individual souls) are "of three classes, . ' 
(I) Sakala (2) Pralay ft kala (3) Vijflftna- ^^ ". 
kala. Listen to their characteristics in order., r • 
Sakala is one whose powers of cognition ^ 
and action are obstructed by (A n a v a) m a 1 a, are • 
associated (by M ft y ft m a 1 a) with Kala and other \ 
Tattvas* for the evolution (of limited, human j 
powers) and bound up with Karma (mala) (orj 
experiencing (pleasure and pain). Pralayftkala7. 
is one who, like the preceding, has cognitive and 
active energies obstructed, but is released from 
contact with Ka 1 ft etc. as liis Ka r m a has been 

* The phrases 'kaU etc'> *£rom kala to the earth 
(Kshiti)', mean ' throughout the manifested universe'. 


( i62 ) 

experienced (and done with), though it is possible 

for him to be again brought under its influence" 

(/*. iv. 2-5). The Pralayft kala is one who is 

. A devoid of Karmamala and dissociated from 

^jf^^j^-'^' K a 1 a etc. during P r a 1 a y a. "He is called 



Vijfianakevalaia the T a n t r a, whose cogni- 
tion and action, being obstructed by ( A n a v a) 
m al a are almost non-existent. " (Id. iv. 5-6). Thus 
these three classes are respectively under the sway 
of one, two and three M a 1 a s. Their paths are call- 
ed Suddhadhva, (pure path), Miar ft dh va 
(mixed path) and AsuddU^dhva (impure path) 
"The SakshmA V^k pertains to the §ud- 
d h & d h v a, the grosser (P a § y a n t i and M a d h- 
y a m ^) to the Mi§r^dhva, and the grossest, 
(Vaikhari)totheA?uddhadhv a." {16. il 30.) 
The doctrine of V A k more properly belongs to the 
S & k t a school, but the S a i v a and S ^ k \ a 
schools coalesce with each other in most points 
and, at times, it is almost impossible to differen- 
tiate one from another. 

A later development of the S a i v a cult is that 
of the Lihg4yatasor Jahgamas, founded by 
Basava, about the middle of the X 11 century in 
the reign of the Kalachiirya king, Bijjala. Its chief 
characteristic is a great revolt against the Brclhman 
supremacy and the abolition of caste. Curious 
enough Basava, himself, was a Brahman. His 
successor, Chennabasava, was his nephew, son of 

( i63 ) 

his virgin sister, NigaUmbikA. Like all reformers 
from Buddha onwards, Basava preached in the ver- 
nacular. §r!kara made the movement orthodox 
by writing a BhAshya«of the Ved&ntaSut- 
ras in Sanskrit in the lines of this Li figfty a ta 
or Vlra^aiva sect. His fundamental position 
is indicated in the following extract "Brahma 
is never nirvi$esha (devoid of attributes). He 

is always bodied (m Art a) as well as unbodied 

He is said to be one (only) before creation. The old 
teachers of the Vedas, Renuka, DAruka, Sifokha- 
kari^a, Gokarna, Revanftsiddha, Marulusiddha, etc. 
have taught that the a d v a i t a texts of B r a h m 4 
{i. e. of the Vedas) refer to the stage before creation, 
as, then, the world manifested or unmanifested 
does not exist... The declaration that all knowledge 
(flows) from the knowledge of one, as in the illus- 
tration of earth (Chk. Up. vi. 1-4) is due to the 
identity of cause and effect. If P r a k r i ti, the subs- 
tratum of the world exist before creation, how 
then could there be oneness? To this, we 
reply, P r a k f i t i, being but the S a k t i of 
1 § V a r a, is not different from him, like the attrac- 
tive power of magnet, or the burning of fire. Hence 
those that desire m o k s h a do not accept the 
theory of the falsity of the world," f A detailed 

4t I have been able to get a mss. of the first AdhySryaof this 
work in Qanjam Dt. 

t S^f^ara'8 Bhdthyx oa Vei. Sut, I. i. i.. 

\ ^ 

( 164 ) 

.ccount of the opinions of this sect is scarcely 
necessary, as it was but a social reform movement 
with a veneer of philosophy put on later to gain an 
orthodox standing. 

The Br^hmans have as usual sapped the vita- 
lity of this movement by reintroducing caste into 
the sect Thus, though the Lihgftyata refor- 
mation started like the Buddhist with a vigorous 
protest against the caste system, there are now 
^^i^-, Lihgftyata Br&hmans, Lifig&yata $fi- 
js^^r dras, etc. The modern Lirigdyatais marked 
" by his fierce hatred of V i s h n u and his constant- 
ly wearing a 1 i ii g a encased in a silver box. * 

The history of the fortunes of § i v a is more 
obscure than that of Vishnu. The ft i g- V e d a 

/ ^ Each sect relies upon an unconscioDable misinterpreta- 

. tion of some vedic text or other for legitimiziDg some an- 

vedio practice which has grown upon it. The Liiigayatas 

\ , quote'amritasya devadh^ranobhiiyasam' [Tait, Up. 

' . *■ I, 4-1] *OGod, may I possess wisdom* and interpret it to 
mean, *may I wear the Qod*. The S a i v a s besmear their 
body with barnt dung and support the practice by quoting, 
*Bhiityai na pr a mad i ta vyam* [76. I. ii. 1], *Do not 
;neglect greatness* and twisting its meaning into, *Do not for- 
get to besmear yourself with burnt dung *. The Vaishnavas 
quote a phrase *chara]|^ampavitram', meaning * holy 
feet * and interpret it as referring to sacramental painting with 
clay and to branding. They have besides * discovered ' a whole 
Upanishad, Oopfchandana Upaniihad^ to uphold their elaborate 
painting of the body, similar to the £ha9ma Jdbdla Upanishad 
* found* by the Saivas. 

( 165 ) 

does not even mention him ; but speaks of R u d r a, 
sometimes as one God, at other times, as many, and 
of the Marutsas Rudra's sons. In the other 
Vedas R u d r a gradually rose to first rank and in 
the age of the composition of the R&mAyana and the 
Mahdbhdrata, he became identified with § i v a or 
Mahadeva and later on, became the last 
person of the TrimArti. The phallic character 
of Siva and his unlovely surroundings indicate 
the fact that he must have been the God of the 
aborigines amidst whom the invading Aryan 
settled and whose gods he had to adopt into 
his pantheon. The only possible reference to phallic 
worship in the Vedas is the scornful phrase Sisna- 
d e V a s, ♦. applied to the enemies of the Aryans, 
either demons or d a s y u s. But these aboriginal 
races have had an ample revenge. MahA^epha, 
(a huge membrum virile) is the God of a large ma- 
jority of modern Indians. It is worshipped in 
templesf, in wayside shrines and worn round the 
necks of the devotees of the 'Great God,' not merely 
for luck as in modern Italy ! 

o R. V. VII 21. 5., X. 99. 3. The word has been varioaely 
interpreted, but the most probable meaniag is, Hhose who have 
sisna for their God', or * tailed demons *. 

t The oldest L i ii g a m so far known is one discovered 

by my friend, Mr. T. A. Qopin&tha Row in the North Arcot 

District. I am indebted to him for a description of this 

-superlatively realistic.ido! which must be much older than he is 

N willing to allow. He has also sent me a photograph of the 

( i66 ) 

Lingam, which for obvious reasons cannot be published here. 

*' The temple of Pars suracud^ vara in which the strangely 
realistic Phallus (Ling a id) is Eet up, is situated in the 
Tillffge of Gudimallam six miles north of RenigUDta, a station 
en the Madras Railway line. One of the inscriptions belong- 
ing to the temple informs us that it was completely recon- 
•trncted in the 9th year of the reign of Vikrama Choladeva 
(11S6 A. D.). The pre sent structure is not after the common 
model of the period to which it belongs. The Vim ana 
[dcme o\er the idol] has the so-called Gajaprishthll- 
]?riti. A close study of the plan end sections whereof, 
bereucder gi^en, would warratt the conclusion that the 
architect had distinctly in view .the shape of the Liu ga- 
and hence the vinidna might be better styled the Linga- 
kri ti-vimana." 

" Again the L i ug a of this temple is, as has been already 

stated, a most remarkable one in that it is an exact copy of 

the j>hatlu8 and has the various portions shaped vefy accurately. 

It ha« been made out of a hard igneous rock of a dark brown 

colour, samples of which are found near the Tirumala hills. 

The L ] ii g a and the image of Siva carved on its front side 

•re very highly polished. Unlike the later representation, the 

image cf S i v a has been made with only a pair of hands, the 

light carrying a nm by its hind legs and the left holding a 

water- vessel,. A battle-axe rests on his left shoulder (from 

which perhaps he derives his name of§svara) and 

there is the usual matted and twisted hair (Ja ta) on his head. 

He is standing on the shoulders of ar&kshasa, whom the 

sculptor has represented with a pair of animal ears. The 

Ling a 18 the only one of its kind in Southern India and from 

its sculpture it might be set down to about the 2nd or 3rd century 

A. D. Compare this image with the picture of a yaksha 

given on page 36 of Gttlnweders " Buddhist Art in India*' 

as translated by Qibbson and Burgess. The face, the ears and 

( i67 ) 

ear-ornaments, the arms and the ornaments on them, the 
necklace, the arrangement of drapery, particularly the' big 
folds that descend between the two l<»g8— all these are identi- 
cally similar in both tlie image of S i v a of Gudimallam and the 
Y a k s h a of the book referred to above. 

*The temple has several old inscriptions the earliest of which 
is dated the last quarter of the 8th century. All of these 
inscriptions call the place in which the temple is situated, 
Timvir-pPiramap^dn,, and is said to be in the S i 1 a i 
nSdu belonging to the Tim vdngadak kottam, a pro- 
vince of the Western V a d u g a country ruled over by the 
M a h a b a 1 i-B & 9 a r 4 y a s, the powerful feudatories of the 
Pallavas of EMchi, Qu<}imallam now belongs to the E4la- 
hasti Zamindari and is a petty village." 

( 168 ) 
(3) The PratyabhijnA School 

The Pratyabhijnft School was founded 
in Kdshmtr in the eighth century A. D. by Vasu- 
gupta, who "discovered" the ''Swa Sutras " and 
taught them to Kallata. Besides the Siva SAtras, 
the chief works of this School are the Spanda 
Rdrika composed by Vasugupta or Kallata, 
^ivadrishti by Somftnandanfttha ( 900 A. D. ), 
PratyabhijnA SUtra by Utpala, son of Udayftkara, 
( 930 A. D, ), commentaries ( Vimarsint) on 
the previous by Abhinava Gupta ( 993-1015 A, D.), 
and commentaries on the first work by Kshemar4ja ♦ 
( 1030 A. D. ). Buhler, who has fixed the dates f of 
these works in his " T9ur in search of Sanskrit 
Mss" wrongly divides the Kishmir S a i v a philo- 
sophical works into two schools, (i) Spanda- 
Sdstra of Vasugupta (2) Pratyabhijhd-Sdstra of 
Som^nandandtha and Utpala» because the word 
spanda occurs frequently in the names of 

^ For fuller details of this work, see my iatrodactioa to my 
English translation of it. 

t The following scheme of dates of the writers of the 
E4shmtr school and Garuparampari, indicated by verti- 
cal lines, is mostly based on B ii h 1 e r ' s investigation. 

Vasugupta, discovered Siva 8(Ur<M^ 8th cent. A. D. 

Ealla^a, contemp. of Avantivarman, 854 A. D. 
Sominandanfitha, cir. 900 A. D. 

1. Utpalft, 

cir, 930 A. D. 

( 169 ) 

the earlier works and pratyabhijAdin those of 
the later. But there is not enough difference between 
the teachings of these two sets of works to justify 
their being regarded as belonging to two different 
schools. S p a n d a is the ultimate principle of the 
universe — that of the spontaneous vibration accom* 
panied by consciousness which underlies all cosmic 
processes and pratyabhijfift is the discipline 
prescribed by this school, which consists in the 
unbroken recognition of man's essential identity 
with Siva and the falsity of every thing else. The 
earlier writers naturally treated the discipline as 
esoteric and the later ones, seeing that the tradition 
was getting lost, emphasized the pratyabhijfift 
discipline and did not treat much of S p a n d a 
which the earlier ones had amply discussed. 

This Kashmir school regards all the § a i v a 
d g a m a s and the numerous books based thereon 
as authoritative and similarly, the writers of the 
SaivaSiddh&nta ^school quote all the Kftsh- 

2. Niriyana, Trivikrama (?) 

Lakshma^) Gupta, cir. 950 A. D. 

Abhinava Gupta, 993-1015 A. D. 

E^hemarija 1080 A. D. 

(Sometimes called Kahemendra, to be diBtiDguiahed from 
his contemporary, Kahemendra Vyftsadisa, author of works on 
Alaiikara, some Tales and other works.) 

Bhiskara, Rimakantha. 

.'^"^^\! ^^^-' "\'^^^-^'" ' ( 170 ) 

' mlr writers as authoritative ; in fact, the analysis of 

the universe into the categories and ta 1 1 v a s of 
the previous section is accepted, in toto^ by the 
iPratya bhij ft A d a r s a n a. The chief difference 
.between the two so far as metaphysics is concerned, 
is (i) the greater insistence on the s p a n d a (active; 
aspect of the A t m a (2) the unreality of a subs- 
tratum of the universe apart from Siva. 

Siva, span da, ch a it any a, the one basis 
of the universe, is characterized by infinite conscious- 
ness which knows no limitations of Time and Space 
and by unrestricted independence (svachchhan- 
d a). " Complete independence in connection with 
conciousness is ch ait any a. It exists only in 
the Lord Parmasiva " (Khemar5ja*s) SivasHtravi- 
marsinl^ i. i.J " Though He possesses endless 
characteristics (Dharma) , like ^ i t y a t v a (eter- 
nality}. Omnipresence, Formlessness, etc., yet 
n 1 1 y a t V a etc., belong (also) to other beings (than 
He); hence Independence/which is not found in 
others, has to be described prominently (as His 
characteristic) " (/^.) "From whence this objective 
universe and this group of organs (body), and 
m a n a s, the internal organ, unconcious, yet simul- 
ating concious being, attain the functions of crea- 
tion, maintenance and destruction, that tattva 
must be diligently examined, whose Independence 
is always unobstructed ". {Spanda Kdrikd,6-7) "As 
thej!va (the experiencer, the individual) is the 

( 171 ) 

self of all, the source of all (his) experiences, the 
object, attains identity with him by being experien- 
ced by him. Hence nothing other than Siva exists, 
in the enquiry regarding word and object. The 
experiencer always and everywhere is seated as 
the experienced" {lb. 28-29). 

Cognition is a unique act, a fusion of subject 
and object Of these two factors, the reality of the 
subject does not require proof ; for in the words of 
Kshemardja, "all proofs depend for their validity on 
self-luminous consciousness" The other factor — 
the object — attains the appearance of real existence 
only when cognized by the subject. " So long as 
these (J 1 V a s) do not cognize, how can there be the 
known, O dear one ? The knower and the known are 
one Tattva." ( Sushmabhairava, quoted by 
Kshemar&ja). Hence the only reality of the 
Universe is S i v a. " As the consciousness on 
which all this effected world is established, whence 
it issues, is free in its nature, it cannot be restrict- 
ed anywhere. As it moves in the differentiated 
states of J^grata etc., (waking, dreaming and 
sleeping), identifying itself with them, it never 
falls from its true nature of the Knower. The 
thoughts, ' I am glad,' * I am sorry,' * I am desir- 
ous,' manifest themsevles in a place different 
(from S p a n d a), wherein the states of pleasure 
etc., are strong. Where there is no pleasure, no pain, 
00 known or knower, nor again unconsciousness, 

) <^ '. f *i 

( »72 ) 




that alone really exsists " (5>. Kdr 2-5)." 

I From this point of view it follows that a second 
I Reality, independent of Siva, as the basb of 
the universe is unnecessary for explaining the 
cosmos. The cosmos is the projection outside 
of the experience of the inner organ^ ~A~n t a h ta- 
r a n a. ^ '" 

" The illumination of objects as being present, 
really exists inside but is made to appear outside " 
[tsvarapratyabhijhA SAtras, V. i). " The Lord, 
of the form of Chit, (individual), being under 
the influence of desire, causes the totality of 
objects to shine as if existing outside, (though) 
without a substratum, like a Yogi." (Jb, V. 6). 
*' The (part of the) cognition ( A d h y a v a s A), * this 
is a pot/ that transcends name and form, the 
S a k t i of P a r e § a, is like the A t m ft and does 
not shine by objectivity (I d a m t ft),"* {lb. V. 17). 
The theory of perception that underlies this the 
metaphysical position will be discussed in the 
Chapter on Psychology. 

s. The active § a k t i of the other schools is a 
relatively unimportant person in this school. "She 
is M ft t r i k a , the basis of knowledge " {^Siva SAt. 
1.4). Mfttrika is the alphabet, treated as the 
mother of the universe, who associates human 

* This word * idamt^ ' can be compared with ' haeooeitas* of 
Dane Scotus. 


( 173 ) 

experiences with the words that describe them and 

whose body is formed by the mantras which are 

themselves made up of letters. SJieJsJhuibut the 

povuecbg hind m .^jlixaA Of the three §aktis, 

j ii & n a, k r i y ^, and i c h c h h d, the first two are 

attached in this school direct to the d t m d, so that 

the mother of the universe loses her predominance. 

Siva Satias.l. 13. says *'Ichchha §akti is 

U m ^, the girl." As Kshemardja explains, in the 

case of the Yog! who has attained the highest 

state, his desire is invincible and the power of his J^ y 

desire is the virgin U m ft. ^jLc V '' 

Thus, from more than one side, the metaphysical 
position of the Pratyabhijfia school .ap- 
proximates to that of ^afikara. As the P r a t y a- 1 
bhljAA is proTe ^edly ba sed on the S A k t a and f^ 
§aiva Agamas, it raises a presumption that 
Sankara and his F r d c h 4 ry a, Gau^ap«^da Vpust 
have derived^ their philosophy from the A g a m a 
schools. According to tradition both were S A k t a s. 

§ a k t\ worship js the~chief one Tollowed in the 
A d v a i t a Mutts which are presided over by those 
who claim today to be the pontifical successors of | 
Saiikara. Gau^apftda is believed to have been| 
author ol Subhagodaya and Sankara of Saundarya- 


^ It IB noteworthy that Gaudap^da is scaroely a proper 
name ; it is a descriptive epithet, the reverend Q a u d a. 

f Even in Kstlid^sa's time the A g a m a b were bo prevalent 
that he complains of their manif oldness. V. Raghuvani^a. X. 26« 


^^* laharif both poems in praise of S a k t i. They prac- 
tised the S r i V i d y 4 — the famous S A k t a discip- 
line. So it may well be that the source of the a d- 
vaita, like the source of all other modern Hindu 
sects, has to be sought for in the S A k t a Agamas. 
Till the Agama literature is edited, published and 
translated, the history of the development of the 
Hindu religion during the last 2,000 years cannot be 
written. Biihler records a Kashmiri tradition 
that Sinkara was vanquished in argument by 
Abhinavagupta who lived three centuries later. 
No conclusion can be based on vague legends car- 
ried dovvji the stream of uncritical tradition. 

iii The Vaishnava Agama. 

The Vaishnava Agamas are said to be 
108 in number, very few of which have been 
printed. They seem to be developments of the 
Bhftgavata, the P^fichar&tra and the 
S^ttvata schools which are mentioned in the 
Mah&bh&rata, The differentiation into schools 
seems to have originally depended on the specific 
mantra, which was the shibboleth of each 
school. Thus it appears that the Bh^gavatas 
adopted the 12- lettered Mantra, the Pftftcha- 
r & t r a s, the eight-lettered one (Omnamo nft*- 
r & y.a & y a ) . The Bh&gavatas are, at pre- 
sent, an insignificant community scattered in the 

( 175 ) 

Telugu* and Maharatta country and have, so far 
as could be ascertained, forgotten the fact of the 
importance of their cult in the history of religion 
in India, their fundamental ideas and practices 
having been adopted by the R&m^nujiyas 
and M & d h V a s and the later schools of B h a k - 
tr. Rclm&nuja treats Bhftgavata, PiSifi- 
char^tra, and S«lttvata practically as synony- 
mous terms in his Bhdshya on Veddnta SUtras, 
II. ii. 40-43, perhaps because their doctrines 
were similar, while their mantras differed. The 
io8 A g a m a s already referred to are all called 

The Pddma Samhifd gives their names ; but 
judging from the contents, some of them e. g. 
Bhdradvdja, are quite modern and hence very 
much later than the Pddma Samhitd itself. This 
raises the presumption that some of these were 
lost and new ones written up to take the place 
of the lost ones. Indeed Vedftnta Desika, 
writing in the XIV century says that in his time 
many of them could not be found. Moreover 
as they were kept secret there was plenty of room 
for forgery. But the Pddma Samhitd and Lakshmt 
tantra are decidedly very old. Their tenets are 
much nearer the S ^ k t a and S a i v a teach- 
ings than the post-R ftmAnujIyaVaishnava 
doctrines discussed later on in this section. 

• Where they are called Karanakamma. 

( 176 ) 

The word Pftfichardtra is explained in 
Pddma SamhitA (I. i. 73) to be that which turns 
the other five $ d s t r a s into night (r ft t r i) these 
other S ft s t r a s being the $aiva, Yoga, 
^ft^khyayoga, Bauddha and A r h a t a 
promulgated respectively by Siva, B r a h m ft , 
Kapila, Buddha and A r h a t a. This deri- 
vation is, on the face of it, fanciful. The Pddma 
Samhitd also speaks of four schools of P ft fi c h a- 
rfttra(i} Mantra Siddhftnta, accepting 
pne Form (of God), (Ekamflrti) (2)Agama 
Siddhftnta, accepting four Forms, (3) T a n t r a 
Siddhftnta, accepting nine Forms, and (4) 
Tantrftntara Siddhftnta, accepting a 
four-headed^or three-headed Form. {lb, I. i. 80-83). 
Of these four schools, the Pddma Samhitd claims 
to belong totheTantra Siddhftnta. The 
fundamental doctrines of the earlier schools of 
the Vaish^avaAgamasare explained in the 
following quotations. 

"B r ft h m a is characterized by bliss (ft n a n d a); 
(he is) the beginning, changeless, always undi« 
fferentiated, self-knowing, faultless, superlatively 
subtle, self-determined, the ruler, self-luminous, 
spotless, infinite, indestructible, tranquil, invisible, 
capable of evolving (the world), unchangeable, 
one full of conciousness of bliss (C h i d ft n a n d a), 
the essence of consciousness (c h i d r A p a), omni- 
present, supreme, devoid of past and future, the 

( ^n ) 

Lord called Vftsudeva,the source of all beings, 
l$vara, the Supereme P u r u s h a, of a stainless 
nature, eternal, without waves, without disturbance, 
boundless, beyond the g u n a s, with g u a s, • 
the giver of all desires. (I. v. 29-34). f 

••Hisform has been described to be threefold, gross, 
subtle, and supreme. The gross is called S a k a 1 a 
(divided) ; the subtle, Sa k a 1 a-n i s h k a 1 a ; the 
supreme (form) of Him is N i s h k a 1 a (undivided), 
O, lotus-born. The thousand-headed § and other 
forms are the s a k a I a form of the Param&t mft ; 
the form which has feet etc. and is made of light 
is s a k a 1 a-n i s h k a 1 a ; the first form of S a c b- 
chidftnanda} is called N i shkal a." (73. 1, vi. 
* He traDscends the three g u ^ a s of matter but is the 
posfieseor of biz g u 9 a s explained infra, 

t Thi« passage and the succeeding verses not quote d 
here show a striking lesembance in ideas and phraseology 
to the description ofParam Brahma in Bkagavadgtta 
Chap, xiii, showing that both are derived from the same 
original A g a m a souree. 

§ Described in the Purutha Sukta. 

X It is notewoHhy that the word sachchidftnanda, so 
freqnently used in the post-S ankara advaita schools as the 
description ofParam Brahma occurs in this A g a m a text and, 
80 far as I have been able to search, fiot found in the ^ankara 
Bhdthya on B^drayai^a's S il t r a s. This shows that a d v a i t a, 
like visisht&dvaita, derived a fresh accession of doctrines 
^iid ideas from the A gam as, after it passed from the 
founder to the later teachers. Among the Upanishads, this 
expression first occurs in the Nritimha Tdpant and Bdma 
Tdpant, which are> apparently earlier than the time of Vidy&ra^ya 
Aud later than that of B&m&nnja. 

( 178 ) 

30-40). The Paramfttrnft has two natures, P r a- 
k f i t i and V i k |: i t i. P r a k f i t i is the synthesis 
of S a 1 1 V a and other gu^as; Vikiritiis Pu- 
r u s h a, called Paramfttrnft. She (P r a k f i t i), 
the woman who has the three gu^as as her essence, 
in whom the individual beings (chetana) are 
established creates the whole world. By His Com- 
mand she sustains it all." (7*. I. vi. 4i-43)« 

In the Lakshmttantta^ L a k s h m i describes 
her Lord and herself in clear terms. ^'Param- 
& t m & is characterized by absence of pain 
(nirduljika) and enjoyment of boundless bliss 
. . . They call Him the Path, the end of the 
Path, Param&tmA. That which is understood 
by the word ego is called the A t m A . The ego 
whose nature is unlimited is called Param&tm^. 
That is called ego, ParamitmA, the eternal, by 
whom all this, moving and motionless, is embraced. 
He is VSisudeva, the Blessed, considered the 
supreme Kshetrajfta. He is called Vishnu, 
Nftr^yana, Vi§va (The All), Vi§varOpa, 
(having the Universe as His form). All this world 
is enveloped by His Ah ant ft (egoity). Truly 
that is not, which is not enveloped by A h a n t ft . 
He is everywhere tranquil (§ftnta), changeless 
(nirvikdra), eternal. Infinite, devoid of limita- 
tions of space, time, etc. He is called M a h & v i - 
b h ii t i (Infinite Glory), because he extends infinite- 
ly. He is B r a h m a , the Supreme abode, the Light 

( 179 ) 

-without a substratum ; of six qualities* similar to 
the ocean of immortality (am^^ita), waveless, 
shining. He is one, undifferentiated conciousness 
(chidghana), tranquil, free from rising or set- 
ting. He is called B r a h m a, the secondless, being 
possessed of 9 a k t i ^ which is not different from 
Him." {LakshmUantray 11. i-io). 

** The Blessed one, Vftsudeva, of the nature 
of consciousness, not limited by space, time, etc., 
is ParamBrahma, devoid of (the three)g u 9 a s, 
spotless, blissful, always the same, with the six 
gun as, without old age or death. \ am His 
supreme $akti,Ahant4, eternal, unchanging. 
My activity is of the nature of desire to create. I 
create of my own independent power, by means of 
a myriad myriadth part of a myriad myriadth part 
(of myself). I become two kinds of beings — the 
knower and the known, (c h e t y a m , and c h e t a- 
nt), chit-§akti being the enlightener of both. 
S a m V i t , that is my nature , attains the states of 
the knower and the known. My nature of 
S a m V i t is pure, independent, full. Like the juice 
of the sugarcane, it attains solidity by Yoga. 
Hence the said knower (chetya) attains chit-tva 
(the state of an individual jtva). As firewood, 

« The six G u 9 a 8 , to be caref ally distingaished from the 
4hree G a ^ a s of matter, are Jfi^aa, Bala,Aisvarya, 
Vlrya, Sakti and Tejas or Ojas aad will be presently 

( i8o ) 

embraced by fire, becomes fiery (tan may a), so^ 
chetya, embraced by s a m v i t becomes chin- 
may a ('filled with the light of consciousness). The 
nature of c h i t is undifferentiated as blue or yellow, 
pleasure or pain. It is differentiated by changes 
due to manifold u p A d h i s. Of its own power, a 
huge form (the manifested world) is built out of (a) 
small (one). The c h i d r p a that is differentiated 
into subject and object is spotless, supreme, neither 
objective nor subjective." (Id. xiv, i — lo.) 

In another passage, L a k s h m i clearly describes 
the relations of the three categories, P a r a m- 
atmft, Sakti, and Jtva. **He is theAtmd 
of all beings, their ego, called H a r i ; I am the 
A h a n 1 4 (egoity) of all beings, the eternal. By 
whatever b h d v a (form) V^sudeva, the eternal, 
is imagined (bhavatah), that b h 4 v a I am 
called. Thence, Brahma the eternal goal, is of 
the nature ofBhavatbhftva. Bhavat is the 
God Nftrftyana; I, the supreme L a k s h m f, am 
B h 4 V a. Hence Brahma, the eternal, is called 
Lakshmtnftr^yana.* Only when enveloped 
by A h a n t ft is it possible to cognize * ego '; what 
is cognized as * T is A h a n t a . Know that the 
connection, the identity of nature (tftdfttmya) 

* These lines are a little obscure. QThe relation between V i s h* 
9 n -and Lakshmiis that between nonmenon and phenomenon or 
abstract and concrete, corresponding to the Prak&sa and Yi- 
mar sa of the S&kt a schools. 

( i8i ) 

between me and my Lord is due to Avinft- 
i) h ft V a (unbroken association) - and S a m a n- 
V a y a (immediate connection). Without A h a n t i 
'Ego' becomes indescribable and uncognizable. 
A bant ft without the cognition of 'Ego' is 
baseless (n i r ft d h ft r a), and uncognizable. The 
Bhavatbhftva perceptible as Samastha 
(synthesis) and V y a s t h a (analysis) is conceived 
in the world asparoksha and aparoksba> 
that which can be (objectively^ realized or not 
When Brahma is not awake, she, A h a n f ft, 
Paramegvariis not awake, and remains with 
all the world taken into her lap. What is called 
his waking (tinmesha), like moonrise on the 
ocean, that is I, Nftrftyant $akti, of the 
nature of desire to create (S i s r i k s h ft). What 
is called the winking ( n i m e s h a ) of the P a r a- 
(Q ft t m ft, during annihilation, that am I, N a r a* 
yantSakti known assushuptft, desirous of 
sleeping. Ai9varya, indestructible, unlimited, 
develops in me, the S i s ( i k s h ft, who rise from 
Ood, the Lord of LakshmL That Supreme 
Brahma is consciousness ( J ft ft n a;, all-seer, 
faultless. A h a n t ft is, of the nature of conscious- 
ness (j ft ft n ft t m i k ft), all knower, all-seer. The 
supreme form of both of us, Brahma and me, 
is of the nature of consciousness. The rest, 
Aisvarya, Virya, etc., are eternal qualities 
(d harm a) of Jftftna. The inner form, Ego, 

( 182 ) 

is called J fi & n a r A p a, the form of light like 
crystal... The indestructible supreme A i s v a r y a 
of mine when I rise (out of N & r 4 y a 9 a) is called 
I c h c h h ft (desire), in the various t a 1 1 v a* 
9 fl s t r a s by the learned. Being the P r a k |: i t i 
(essence) of the world, (I am) called S a k t i. My . 
effortlessness when I create is regarded as Bala;, 
(also) my filling all the created world is called 
Bala; though I am always P r a k ( i t i, my 
being devoid of change is V i r y a. Milk gives up 
its nature (of milk) when curd is formed out of 
it ; such change is never (produced) in me when 
I become the (manifested) universe. Hence 
knowers of t a 1 1 v a (reality,) regard V t r y a as 
absence of change. V I r y a, (also) called V i k- 
rama is (by some) regarded as a part of 
A i 8 V a r y a. My independence of assistance 
in doing all works is called Tejas, the sixth 
G u n a, by the knowers of t a 1 1 v a s. Te j a s is 
defined by some as the power of defeating others. 
Some t a 1 1 V a-know^rs regard this as (part oQ 
A i 9 V a r y a, These five G u n a s are regarded 
as flowing from ( the first guna) Jft&na. The 
six gunas, Jfiftna and the rest, are my body.** 
(/*. II. 12-35). "Narftyana, the God, is the 
eternal Paramfttmft, always the ocean of 
jfiflna,bala, ai^varya, vtrya,8akti and 
o j a s. He is beginningless, not limited by space, 
time and form. I am his supreme Goddess, shin- 

( 183 ) 

ipg supreme with the six g u 9 a s , the 9 a k t i 
(goddess, power) that causes all effects, eternal, called 
A hmn t ft. My nature (svarApa) issamvit 
(coQciousness), Pum, Free, Full. All j t v a s are 
established in me ; all of them are in me. I make 
manifest all the world, of my own free will 
(svechchhayd),onibtmftasthe substratum ; 
in me the world is reflected as birds in water* Of 
my own free will, independent (of extraneous help) 
I start manifestation, I, the author of the Five 
Actions.* The author of manifestation am I, 
called c h i t-f a k t i . My contracted form, ( i. e. 
the j 1 V ft t m ^ ), he is Pure, Free, undifferentiated 
conciousness (chidghana). In me does the 
world shine as the mountain in a mirror. Like a 
diamond-stone, he (the jlva) shines everywhere pure. 
His characteristic (dharma) ischaitanya, 
like the stainless radiance of the Sun. By it does 
shine the jlva, with (the light) suitable (to him) 
of his own accord. The jlva, too, always does the 
Five Actions. His activity as in blue, yellow, etc., 
( differentiated objects ) is called creation by the 
wise. ( His ) attachment to objects is called suste- 
nance (s t h i t i ). His giving up an object grasped 
on account of the desire to grasp a new one, is 
called destruction (s a m h r i t i) by those that know 
the t a 1 1 v a 9 ft s t r a s. Its v d s a n ft (deposits in the 
mind) is t i r o b h ft v a , its dissolution, anugraha. 

^Srishti, sthiti. samhfiti. tirobbdva, anngraha. 

( i84 ) 

His characteristic is grasping and enjoyment al- 
ways destroying (what he enjoys) like fire. The 
J 1 V a always feeds little by little my brightness." • 
{lb, xiii. 18-29.) 

In the later Vaishanava schools, namely the 
VisishtAdvaitaand the Dvaita Veda n- 
t a, though to a large extent based on the P A ft- 
charfttra Agamas, Lakshml, the realiy 
active factor of the cosmos is degraded to an 
obscure position. One subsect regards L a k s h m t 
as a sort of intermediary in the matter of the 
grace that leads to M o k s h a; in another, she is 
inferior even to the A c h ft r y a. The earlier 
Pftftcharitra Agamas are utilized much 
more by the rival $ a i v a school than by the 
modern Vaishnavas. f In another point have 
the modern Vaish^ava schoqls gone away from 
the position of the Agamas. The relation bet- 
ween the individual soul, called Kshetrajfia (as 
in the Bhagavadgttd)^ and the Paramfttrnft, is 
much nearer the A d v a i t a position than would be 
palatable to the modern Visisfatcldvaitts and 
D v a i 1 1 s who regard this work as authoritative. 
" It is taught in the $ r u t i that the A t m A of the 
Para and the Kshetrajftais one. The limita- 
tion of the Kshetrajfia is known to be due 

* Bach act of concious life is a manifestation of my power, 
f Compare the qaotations in the Spandapradtpika with 
those in the TattviUrayam. 

( 185 ) 

to the difference of bodies, as one image is dif- 
ferentiated into many in many mirrors. K s h e C r a 
<the body) is made of the five,* ( gross ) ele- 
ments (b h A t a) etc. ; the j t v a is established in it ; 
the wise s Q r i s f (Gods) by their eyes of wisdom 
know him, the k s h e t r a j ft a, to be the supreme, 
which cannot be reached by B u dd h i, untouched, 
transcending the manifested, beyond the sufireme, 
Vishiju" (/A I. vi. 15-18). "AstheAkasa 
in a pot moves when the pot is moved, truly there 
is no difference between the P a r a and the J t v a " 
itb. I. vi.20). 

The modern VisishtAdvaita is a school 
of eclecticism, blending the RAmftnujiya 
Vedftnta philosophy and A gam a cosmo- 
gony and practices. RftmAnuja, himself, 
though the A c h ft r y a , par excellence^ of this sect, 
and though he pleaded for the orthodoxy of the 
Pftfichar&tra books, expounds only the V e • 
d A n t a philosophy and discipline. But his follow- 
ers have neglected Ramftnuja's philosophy and 
brought into greater prominence Agama doc- 
trines and practices. The modem V i s i s h ^ fl - 
dvaita is clearly expounded in Filial Lokfl- 
chftrya's Tattvatrayam, a Tamil work of the age of 

♦ (1) Gross elements (2) subtle elements (S) jftanen- 
driyas (4) Karmendriyas (5) antaib^kara^a. 

1- In the Vaish^a t a tradition, the s ^ r i s are betags who 
were never bound. 

( 186 ) 

Sftyana. This work is much read by the 
Srtvaish^avas, who are a fairly widespread 
sect in Southern India. The Tattvatrayam is an 
exposition of the three ultimates — t Bvara,Chit 
and A chit. *' Chit is Atmft. The nature of 
A t m & is (being) other than body, sense-organ, 
Manas, PrA^a, Buddhi which are each 
superior to the one preceding it ; ( A. t m & is ) 
not-unconscious, blissful, eternal, infinitely small^ 
imperceptible, inconceivable, indivisible, immutable,, 
the seat of knc^wledge ; (He is) inspired, supported 
and disposable by 1 s v a r a {Tattvatrayam. i-3-4). 
" His size is but atomic (minute); his characteristic is 
the union of knowledge and bliss ; of the dimensions 
ofatrasare^u (mote) and shining with millions 
of rays " ( Vishvaksena Samhitd quot in Manav&la's 
comment, on lb. i 14). Whereas chit is a 1;^ u,. 
tavara isVibhu, infinite and this constitutes 
an eternal difference between the two. The indi- 
vidual Soul resides in the heart. ''He is a knower 
and hence an agent and an enjoyer " ( lb u 29) 
'* C h i t is the seat of knowledge. If he were know- 
ledge merely, we should say ' I am knowledge ' and 
not * I know'." ( lb. l. 27, 28. ) This relation 
between the Soul and consciousness as substratum 
and quality (dharmadharmibh&va) differ- 
entiates Vifisht Ad vai ta from SAfikhya 
and Ad vait a and' approximates it to NyAya 
andVai^eshika. This school like the last, alsa 

( 187 ) 

admits that the A t m A is the actor and the enjoyer, 
uolike the SAfikhya and the Advaita which 
conceive of action and enjoyment as belonging to 
matter. The individual souls are of three classes, 
baddha, mukta, and nity a, those who are in 
bondage, those who are emancipated, and those 
who were never bound. {lb. i. 42). 

" A c h i t is the unconscious, and the seat of 
vikira (phenomenality). It is of three kinds, 
Suddhasattva (pure sattva),mi8rasattva 
(mixed sattva) and sattva-^Any a (devoid of 
sattva). Suddhasattva is a rarefied state 
of matter, pure Sattva, without the admix- 
ture of R a j a s and T a m a s, eternal, productive 
of knowledge and bliss, capable of modification not 
by Karma but by divine will into chariots, 
towers, pavilions, palaces etc. (in V a i k u n t h a) , 
of infinite brilliance, and difficult to be measured 
by the eternally emancipated and by t^vara 
himself. This (state of matter) is regarded by some 
to be unconscious and by others conscious." {lb. it. 
1-6.) Though this superlatively refined state of 
matter is by some regarded as conscious it is differ- 
ent from the fndividual soul and from knowledge. 
'*M i f r a s a 1 1 V a is that species of A c h i t which is 
compounded of Sattva, R if^ji^ s and T a m a s , 
causes the destruction of the knowledge and bliss 
of souls in bondage, produces false knowledge, is 
eternal, affords a field for 1 s v a r a ' s sport (i. e. 

( i88 ) 

creation etc.,) evolves into similar and dissimilar 
forms by differences of place and time and is called 
Prakfiti, AvidyA and M & y A . It is called 
P r a k r i t i because it causes changes ( v i k A r a ); 
it is called A v i d y ft , because it destroys know- 
ledge ; it is called M ft y A , because it has wonder- 
ful creative power." (lb. ii. 9-10). 

''SattvaSA^yais Time. It is the cause of 
the evolution of Prak^iti and material objects; 
itself changes as Kal4, Kftsh^ft (small periods 
of time), is eternal, the field of t s v a r a 's sport and 
His body. The other two classes of Ac hit are 
(i) fit to be experienced (B h o g y a) by Isvara and 
A t m ft, (2) means and fields of (their) enjoyment 
^ (Those) Fit to be experienced ' (B h o e y a) are 
objects ; ' means of enjoyment ' are organs like eyes 
&c., ' fields of enjoyment ' are the four places and all 
bodies. Of these, the first A c h i t (supenfiiie 
matter) is bounded below and unbounded around 
and above ; the middle A c h i t (ordinary matter) 
is bounded above but unbounded below and 
around. Time (the last A chit) is the same 
everywhere. Time is N i t y a (eternal) in P a r a- 
m a p a d a (the supreme abode of isvara), and 
here (in the manifested worlds^, a n i t y a (nntte)." 
(73. 43'4^y ' Etoraal Time ' is called A k h a 9 4 a, 
unbroken into finite periods, infinite duration un- 
differentiated by the rate of flow of changing 
^tatts of consciousness. Finite Time is K h a 9 4 a. 

( 189 ) 

consisting of periods divided as seconds, minutes 
etc These two are called Time and No-Time in 
Matt- Up VI. 

1 $ V a r a, the third t a 1 1 v a/' is opposed to all 

evil, infinite, self-illumined, blissful, shining with 

hosts of auspicious qualities like Jn^na, $akti 

etc the cause of the creation, maintenance and 

destruction of all universes, the Refuge of the 

four kinds of men, ' the afflicted, the enquiring, the 

solicitous and the sage' {Bhagvad-Gttd vii. i6) the 

giver of the four kinds of fruits — virtue, objects, 

love and release, of a splendid form, and the Lord 

ofLakshm!, NlUand Bh(im t." ( lb, iii. i.) 

L a k s h m t and the other two are Goddesses 

manifesting the three S a k t i s of knowledge, 

action, and inertia. The auspicious qualities 

referred to are wisdom, power, forbearance, mercy, 

love, activity, righteousness, friendship, gentleness, 

and accessibility. {lb. iii. lO) 

" His * splendid form ' is infinitely superior to 
forms ( like Anandamaya) and qualities, 
worthy of Him alone, eternal, one, constituted 
of$uddhasattva, not obstructive of wisdom 
like human bodies, illmunative of His Divine 
nature which therein is like the gold placed in 
a ruby cup, the treasury of His hosts of quali- 
ties like delicacy etc, of infinite brilliancy, fit 
to be meditated on by Yogts, dazzling all 

( 190 ) 

beings, generative of all enjoyments and dis- 
passion, always delightfully beheld by the 
eternally free beings, quenching the afflictions of 
all like a lotus tank^ the root of all a v a t & r a s 
protecting all, the substratum of all, and ornamen* 
ted by implements and ornaments." {,1b. in. 40.) 
The 'implements and ornaments' are various 
symbols of the divine attributes conceived as exist- 
ing in physical shapes in his Divine Form. 

The fortunes of Vishnu, among the gods of 
India, have been the most varied. In the earliest 
Vedic age, he was the * highest,' * being placed in 
the sky and the * last ', f in the series of Gods 
to whom a portion of the sacrificial food was to be 
offered. He was the friend of I n d r a and the 
supporter of the world. In the age of the B r A h - 
manas, he became the * sacrifice', the supreme 
P u r u s h a, whom the Gods stretched on the sacri- 
ficial altar. The Nirukta tried to explain him away 
as the sun. In the early A g a m a s , he became the 
Param Brahma and his cosmic duties were dis- 
charged by " his goddess ", L a k s h m i . Finally 
in the P u r ft n a s and in the popular imagination of 
modern India, he is the second person of the Trini- 
ty, always sleeping stretched leisurely in his couch 
<of A d i $ e s h a the cosmic serpent) and comfort- 
ed by three wives, Sri, B h 6, and Ntlft, on the 

♦ JR. F. 1. 22. 20. Ait Brdh. I. i, i. 
t A^al. fifr. S'At. iv. 2, 

( 191 ) 

ocean of milk which extends through all space 
and interfering with the affairs of the world as an 
a V a t & r a, only when his help is invoked by his 
colleague and son, Bra hm A. The $ftlagrama 
a fossil ammonite shell of Tertiary times is his 
favorite haunt and is treasured in the homes of 
his devotees and the modern Vaishnava sips 
the water in which the fossil ammonite is washed 
to the chanting of the P u r u s h a s fi k t a ,* for 
disinfecting his inside of the bacillus of sin ! 

<» The Purusha Sdkta and the G&yatri, which 
every orthodox Hind a recites daily in his worship were also 
ased ia aocient times iathe Parushamedha, when the 
human victim was bound and about to be immolated, ^ai, 
Brdh. XIll.6.2.9,2. 

The following chronological note has been furnished by 
Mr. Gopinatha Row. 

That side of the Vish^u-cult which concerned itself 
^ith temple worship became popular in Southern India in 
ths age of the 12 Alvirs, Vaishi^iava saints [of 
&B80Fted castes] who li^ed between the 6th and 9th cent. 
A. D. and produced Tamil literature collected as the 
four thousand verses (^Ndldyira prahandham) and fixed 
as the sacred Tamil Vaishj^ava canon by N & t h a- 
Mani, who lived in the reign of Rijar&ja I and the earlier 
R^jendra-Oboladeva I ("985.1030 A. D.) His grandson, 
ilavand&r, otherwise, Y & m u n a wrote the Siddhi- 
^rayam^ the first exposition of the fundamental ideas of the 
Visisht&d vait a Ved&n ta, as well as Agamaprdmd- 
¥yam and thus paved the way for the amalgamation of the 
^ftish^ava Agama and the V e d & n t a teachings. 

( 192 ) 

R&iD&noja IWed from 10554137 A. D. Ptir^a- 
p r a j fi a, otherwise M a d h v a is said to have been bom in 
1206 A. D, The third in descent from him was Narahari- 
tirtha, Dewan Regent of Ealiiiga, (Orissa^ daring the 
minority of Vtra N^rasimha Deva. His successor, 
Akshobhyatlrtha was a contemporary of V i d y a- 
r a n y a, like the two well-knowq expounders of R & m & n a j a,^ 
Ved&niaDe^ika and PillaiLok&ch&rya. Aksho- 
b h y a's disciple, Jayatlrtha is the greatest among the 
expounders of the M & d h v a cult. From A kshobhya there 
arose a branch, the first member of which was K r i s h i^ a 
Ghaitanya, the prophet of Bengal. V a 1 1 a b h a, the 
founder of the K r i s h ^ a-B h a k t i cult, a Telugu 
Brahman ot the Nellore District, was a contemporary 
of Krishna Dc>var&ya of the Vijayanagaram dynasty 
(1500-1527 A. D.) and a contemporary of a late M&dhva 
teacher, Vy&satirtha. 

The ^ a i V a temple-cult spread among the Tamils 
more extensively than the corresponding Vish^u-cult and 
gave birth to a more extensive Tamil literature. The Tamil 
S a i V a saints, Sivana(}iyS.r8, were 63 in number. 
The greatest of them was TirunanaSambandha, who 
converted the powerful Pftnfya King, Kfin Pft^dya from 
the J a i n a to the S a i v a cult. Sankar&charya, who lived in 
the later half of the 8th. century refers to Sambandha as D r a- 
▼ i d a S i s u (Saundaryalahart^ si. 75) • Hence Sambandha and 
his very militant friend, A p p a r, (or V ft g 1 § a r) who conducted 
a vigorus crusade against the J aina religion must have lived 
and worked about 650 a. d. Another famous Saiva teacher, Suzi- 
daramdrti lived about 850 ▲. D. He was a protege of 
Narasinga Munaiyaraiyan of Nadu Nftdu (in the 
South Arcot Dt.}. The Tamil songs of these a Siva Saints 
are called Tevdram, About 100 years later lived M&nikka 
vft^agar, author of Tiruxd^gam^ edited and translated 

( 193 ) 

by Dr. G. I}. Pope. Nllakan tha wrote a Bh&ahyaof 
the Vedantaautrasto suit the tenets of the S a i v a 
Sid(ih4nta, and it it called Saiva Visishf&dvaita 
Bhaahya. Heikav^a, (1236 A D.) and Um&pati 
Siv4ch4rya, (1313 a. d.) wrote Tolaminont Tamil work* 
ezpoandlDg the same. 

The following note has been famished by my friend Mr. 
V. Venkayya, Govt. Epigraphist, Gotucamand. 

The N^nagbata inscription begins with invocations to Indra 
Sankarehana, VHsadeva, Yama, Varuiia and Eabera. 

The worship of Bbagavat Sankarsbana and VAsadeva and 
a Vaishnava temple are mentioned in a still earlier inscription. 
Ind. Ant. Yo]XVllI p. 190. 

That the worship of Siva is more ancient than the time of 
the founder of Buddhism is rendered probable by the tradi- 
tion that the Sakyas were worshippers of Siva. The Chinese 
pilgrim Hiouen Tsang was shown near the eastern gate of 
Kapilavasta the old temple of tsvara, where the infant SiddhAr- 
tha was taken by his father, because ** the SUkya children who 
here seek divine protection always obtain what they ask. " 
According to the legend the stone image then raised itself and 
saluted the prince. That this legend is very ancient is proved 
by the fact that the scene is represented on the AmaiSivati 
Bl^pa (^JSp. Ind. V. 3.^ which has probably to be assigned to the 
Maurya Period. 


( 194 ) 

Section IV. 

The Vai^eshika and the Nydya. 

These schools were based on the logical 
processes of Definition and Deduction. They were 
uncompromisiDgly an ti- monistic in their aim. 
£ven the S d h k h y a, while admitting each 
Purusha to exist absolutely apart from other 
conscious beings, conceives all unconscious subs- 
tances from B u d d h i downwards to be successive 
transformations of one substratum — matter, but 
these schools do not attempt to derive one kind of 
substance from another. They divide objects into 
genera and species, define them by these marks, 
but refuse to be attracted by the eternal niocking 
mirage of monism that has produced so much bad 
metaphysics and worse science even in our days. 
The earliest Vaiaeshika book we have is the 
Sutras of KanAda, and the earliest N y A y a 
book, the S li t r a s of Gautama and these are not 
much later than the age of Buddha, while the 
Vai§eshika-Ny^ya system, the ancient rival 
of the S ^ ii k h y a-Y o g a system, and also of 
the Ved A n t a system, must be older. Pra^asta- 
pada, who lived not much later than the ist 
century A. D. wrote a Bhdshya on the S (i t r a s 
of Kan^da. This Bhdshya is not a commen- 
tary but a systematic restatement and amplifica- 
tion of the Vaiaeshika system, utilizing where 

( 195 ) 

possible the words of Ka^&da. V&tsyftyana, 
was the first commentator on the Ny&ya SAtras 
and he lived sometime before the 6th cent. A. D. 
In later days the Vai$eshika and N y ft y a 
schools g^t very much mixed up, so that in 
modern works on T a r k a (Logic) so-called, the 
part contributed by the Vai$eshika school 
could scarcely be disentangled from that contri- 
buted by the N y ft y a school. Similarly the 
S ft fi k h y a and Yoga are one and the V e- 
d ft n t a and A g a m a have in modern times 
become inextricably one, making it extremely 
difficult to discover the historical development of 
each philosophical idea. 

A. Vai^eshika. 

The Vai$eshika school analyses padftrthas 
into six. Padftrtha literally means the mean- 
ing of a word, the thing which corresponds to a 
word and is generally translated category. It is 
more properly, a fundamental general concept 
under which can be subsumed what are indicated by 
words. These are six according to the early 
Vai§eshika — substance (Dravya), quality 
( G u n a ) , action (Karma), Sftmftnya, (the 
relation of a thing to its genus), Vi$esha 
(differentia) and Samavftya ( coinherence ) • 
{yais, SiiL Li. 4). Ka^ftda restricts the word 

( 196 ) 

A r t h a to the first three (Jais, SAt. VIII. ii. 3 ) 
and Prd^astapS^da extended it to the others also. * 
In later days a seventh category, Abh^va 
(non-existence), was added to the list and the total 
Pad&rthas acknowledged to-day are thus 

The characteristics of substance are that it 
serves as a substrate of qualities and actions and 
is a coinherent cause. (73. I. 1.15). Qualities 
like colour, and actions like expansion, cannot exist 
/« z^tf^«^ but require substance as their Ad heir a 
(substrate) . " A substance is not destroyed either 
by its effect or by its cause." {lb, I. i. 12). 
Thus the threads are not destroyed when they 
become woven into cloth, but coinhere in the 
cloth : But " qualities ( are destroyed ) in both 
ways." Ub. I. i. 12) ; when one taste is produced 
by a combination of a number of others, each 
of these latter loses its individuality. " An 
action is destroyed by its effect" {lb I. i. 14); the 
tension of a bow is destroyed when disjunction of 
the arrow from the bow is produced. The character- 
istics of quality are that it inheres in a substance, 
it is without qualities, and is not a cause of (or) 
is concerned with conjunctions and disjunctions." 

^ Bodas, in his intro<iuctioo to the Tarka Samgraka 
p. 30-31 has proved that Vai§.SCi. I. i. 4. is an interpolation 
made later than the age of Sridhara, the author of Nydya 

( 197 ) 

{lb, I. i. i6) " The characteristics of action are that 
it inheres in one substance, it is without qualities 
and is the sole cause of conjunctions and disjunc- 
tions " {lb, I. i. 17, 30). KaQ&da also discusses 
s ft m & n y a (nature of genus) , v i $ e s h a (nature of 
species) and samavdya, (coinherence), though 
he does not include them in the categories, for they 
are not objects (a r t h a) of perception. "Generality 
and speciality are buddhyapeksham, concep- 
tual, (lb. I. ii. 3) . The Summum Genus, "that which 
is a genus (without being a species) is B h ft v a 
(existence) , for it is the most extensive concept. " 
{lb. I. ii. 4). "Substantiality (dravyatva), 
qualitativeness (g u n a t v a) and activity (karma- 
tv a) are both general and specific. (And so all 
others) except ultimate species, (the atoms etc.) " 
(/^. I. ii. 5-6.) In the later Vai§eshika, the 
word V i $ e s h a (difference) has been restricted to 
what is called here, antyavi$esha, ultimate 
species, the detailed description of which gave the 
name Vai$eshika to this school. 

The last padftrtha, according to Pra$as- 
tapftda is coinherence, Samavftya. Kanftda 
defines coinherence to be "that by which (we speak) 
of cause and effect, that the one is in the other " 
{lb. VII. ii. 26). Prasastapada discusses Sama- 
vftya fully. "The connection of what are in- 
separably connected and are in the relation of 
substrate and accessory which causes the cognition 

( 198 ) 

* here ' is S a ma v ft ya. From the cognitions, *Here» 
in the threads(is) the cloth/ * Here, in the grass (is) 
the mat (woven from the grass), * Here, in D r a v y a 
(are) Dravya, Guna and Karma,' * Here in 
Dravya, Guna and Karma (is) Sattd, 
*Here, in Dravya (substance) is Dravya- 
t V a m (substantiality),' ' Here in G u n a (quality), 
is gunatvam (qualitativeness),' 'Here, in 
karma (action) is Ka.^matvam (activity),' 
' Here in eternal (atoms) are the ultimate species 
(antyavi$eshft h),' we can understand there 
is some connection between the members of these 
(pairs). This (connection) is not S a m y o g a 
(conjunction like that between a pot and the milk 
placed in it)." ( Vats. Dar^. Bombay Ed. p. 66) 
Of these padftrthas, the first three, Dravya, 
Guna and Karma possess Sattd. Sattdis 
defined thus: — "Whence we say of Dravya, 
Guna and Karma that they are — that is S a 1 1 ft. 
Sattdisanartha (a thing) different from sub- 
stance, quality and action, (/b. I. ii. 7-8). " Exis- 
tence is one, for *to be' is no specific mark (of things) 
nor has it specific marks of its own." (lb. I. ii. 17,) 
** Existence is uncaused and eternal" {Ii, IV. i. i). 
Thus the S a 1 1 ft of the Vai$eshikas is a 
general concept and other than Dravya, Gu^a 
and Karma, and hence is not a noumenon, a 
reality behind phenomena, like the P r a k |: i t i 
of the Sftiikhyas. Pra^astapftda notes that 

( 199 ) 

the other three pad&rthas, SAm&nya^ 
V i s e s h a and SamavAyaare characterized by 
SvcLtmasatva, which Udayana explains as being 
devoid of S a 1 1 ^ iPrasastapada bhdskya p. 30.) 

The first of these paddrthas has been des- 
cribed as substance. The ultimate substances are 
uncaused and eternal. They are of two classes, 
a 9 u and v i b h u, atomic ^nd pervasive. The 
idea of an atom is derived from the consideration 
of the divisibility, or as it is called a v a y a v o- 
vayavlprasanga, the relation of the consti- 
tuent parts and the constituted whole. The divisi- 
bility of matter must end somewhere ; if not, 
there would be no difference of size between 
Mount Meru and a grain of mustard, for both would 
be made up of an infinity of parts. Matter of the 
size of a trasarenu, a mote in the sunbeam, con- 
tains three dvayanukas, dquble atoms. Each 
dvayanukais made up of two param4ous 
atoms. Five are atomic substances, earth, water, 
air, fire and m a n a s. Four are pervasive subs- 
tances, time, space, & k A ^ a and ^ t m d. 

Of these nine eternal, ultimate substances the 
most important is A t m ft, by which all other 
substances are cognized. 

" The objects of sense are universally known. 
The universal cognition of the objects of sense 
proves that there is a substance other than (" those) 

( 200 ) 

objects of sense (which cognizes them). It is an 
invalid argument (which says that cognition is a 
quality of the body or the senses), because of the 
unconsciousness of the causes of the sensation and 
consciousness of the effects /. e, the cognition. " 
(/*. Ill, i. I— 5). " The (cognition in the) term T 
being characteristically different (from every other 
cognition) no scriptural testimony is required " to 
prove the existence of the soul {lb. III. ii. 9). 
On the contrary, '^the cognition of the Ego is an 
immediate intuition of an entity other (than the 
body), because it applies to the soul that reflects 
on itself and nothing else" (Jb, III ii. 14). 

This rejection of scriptural testimony for the 
existence of the Atm& is in direct contradiction 
to the VedAnta, which admits scripture i. e, 
testimony, of either supersensuous beings or 
teachers (gurus) who have gained an experience 
not attained by ordinary men as the only evidence 
of the existence of the Atma,fdr Vedinta 
asserts the existence of a universal A t m ft , 
which is not given in ordinary human conscious- 
ness. That ' I am ' every one will admit. That 
*\ am more than I am now' is the fundamental 
position of the V e d & n t a and this can but be a 
matter of faith till that greater I is actually ex- 
perienced. The S d: n k h y a and the Vai^eshika 
which are essentially rationalistic cannot help 
being schools of individualism. 

( 20I ) 

The soul is '' manifold, because of the distinct* 
ness " of one man's experiences from every other 
(man's) (/*. III. ii. 21). Moreover "the activity and 
inactivity observed in one's own soul are marks (to 
prove the existence of different souls) in others." 
{lb. III. i. 19). ,\s Sankara Mi§ra, a commen- 
tator on the S Q t r a s says, " Activity and in- 
activity produced by desire and aversion are 
(two) species of effort. From them are born bodily 
functions called muscular actions having for their 
object the attainment of pleasure and avoidance of 
pain. Hence, when we see muscular action in a 
body other (than our own), we infer (the existence 
of) another soul for this muscular action is 
born from effort, because it is a muscular action 
like our own muscular action and that effort is 
born from some soul or based on some soul because 
it is an effort like our own effjrt." 

"The mark? of the (presence of the ) soul (in a 
body) are the outgoing and in going breath, the 
opening and closing of the eyes, vitality (that builds 
up tissue), the motion of m a n a s, affection of the 
other sense-organs, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion 
and volitional effort." {lb. III. ii-4). 

The play of breath in a body is the result of a 
constant effort of the soul to keep up the life of 
the body exerted as much during sleep as duri( 
waking moments. This is called *the conatic 
that is the basis of vitality (jlvanayoni prJ 

( 202 ) 

y at n a); winking and the anabolic processes are 
also due to the same conation. The movements 
of m a n a s in bringing the A t m & and the organs 
of sense into conjunction to produce perception 
depend upon desire and effort both of which reside 
in the A t m & . Pleasure and pain reside in the 
Atml which is their substratum. Thus the At mft 
of the Vai$eshikas comes nearest to the 
Western conception of the soul. As in European 
philosophy, desires, conations and preceptions 
are conceived as qualities of the soul, and not as 
processes of subtle forms of matter, the object ; 
but the V a i § e s h i k a school clearly separates cod- 
ciousness from these, which it does not regard as 
modifications of consciousness as is held in^the 
West. Consciousness is separate from them and 
can and does exist apart from them. 

Time is another ultimate substance. The marks 
of its existence are "the notions of later, simultane- 
ous, slow and quick." {Vai^. SUt. II. ii. 6). " It is 
called a cause as it does not exist in eternal things 
and exists in non-eternal things." {lb, II. ii. 9). D i k, 
space is another substance whence (rises) the no- 
tion "this is (so far) from here." {lb. II. if. 10). 
Time and space are substances, because they do 
not inhere in any other substance and possess 
actions and qualities and are eternal. {lb. II. ii /• 
1 1 \ Time is one and so is Space though they 
appear manifold, on account of accidental quali- 

( 203 ) 

ties added to them. {lb II. ii. 8. I2) The divi- 
sion of time into minutes, hours, etc. and into past, 
present and future and of space into East, West, etc, 
are not due to their inherent quah'ties but to the 
course or position of the Sun. The conception of 
time as past, present or future is due to the dis- 
tinction of the states of objects into antecedent non- 
existence, present existence and subsequent non- 
existence. These distinctions being transferred to 
Time lead to its division into past, present and 
future, though it is really one. Like the sou!, 
these two substances are v i.b h u , pervasive and 
infinite and not a n u, atomic. It must be noted 
here that Space is called Dik, which literally means, 
direction. It is the distance between two objects 
measured along a straight line. Modern H i n d s 
use A k a §a for space, whereas A k ft $a , being 
the substrate of sound is a definite substance with 
qualities attached thereto. The idea of infinite 
space does not seem to be discussed in- Hindu 
books. The Upanishads speak of * A k d ^ a m 
Brahma'; this can but be the manifestation of 
Brahma as * subtle sound ', not mere infinity 
of extension, devoid of any extended thing, which 
is the modern conception of infinite space. 

Manas is another eternal substance. It is 
the organ that brings into contact the sonl and 
the objects of sense through the sense-organs. 
" The proof (of the existence) of Manas are 

( 204 ) 

existence and non-existence of cognition on the 
proximity of the soul and sense-objects (accord- 
ing as M a n a s serves as their medium of contact 
or no). (lb. III. ii. i). It is atomic (indivisible 
and invisible) because it can be in contact with 
only one sense-organ at a time whereas if it were 
all-pervading it could be in contact with all sense- 
organs and we could have a number of sensations 
at the same time. As we cannot imagine it to be 
constituted by constituted parts it follows that it 
is eternal. It is an ultimate substance because on 
it as substratum takes place the conjunction with 
^ense-organs to produce cognitions. 

In the substances are * Earth ', * Water ', * Fire ', 
* Air ' and A k ft s a . Of these the first four are 
anu, atomic and the last is vibhu, pervasive. 
The sensation of sound is a quality which inheres in 
in A k ^ $ a . The sensation of touch inheres in the 
atoms of *air. ' *£ire' has two qualities, colour 
and touch, 'Water' has three qualities, colour, 
taste and touch. * Earth * has four, colour, taste, 
smell and touch. Thus these four represent four 
hypothetical elementary substances, which combine 
and produce the perishable objects of the universe. 
The latter are k A r y a or effects which derive their 
qualities on account of the Samavftya or 
coinherence in them of their causes — the eternal 
substances. In the words of the S ft t r a s , " the 
nature of the effect (is derived) from the nature of 

( 205 ) 

the cause" {lb. IV. i. 3.) These effected (objects) 
are also distinguished by being a v a y a v t , com- 
plex, consisting of body, organ and object (Jb. IV. 
ii. I.) 

K a n A d a does not mention a God or Supreme 
Creator among his ultimate substances. When the 
Vai$eshika philosophy in much later days 
chiefly under the influence of the Saiva cult 
developed the notion of a personal creator, the 
commentators attempted to derive the notion of a 
Supreme God from a misinterpretation of one 
sfitra. This sfttra (I. i. 3) runs thus: — *Tadva- 
chanSd&mn^yasya pr&mdnyam'; it 
means * The authority of the scriptures (is due) to 
(their) describing it. * It * refers to Nih$reyasa 
(highest good) in the previous s fi t r a , where 
Nih^reyasais said to be derived from Dharma 
and hence this s fi t r a points out that the Veda 
is authoritative because it points out the way to 
the highest good. The later commentators have 
tried to wrench this passage out of its context and 
understand by *T a d* the absolute B r a h m a of the 
V e d ft n t a. This s fi t r a recurs again as the last 
of the work (X. ii. 9) , and there, again, the reference 
is not to Brahma but to the unseen effect of 
vedic ceremonial. Another s fi t r a is also wrongly 
explained to refer to God. It is II. i. i8. and runs, 
' Samjfi&karmatvasmadvi^ishtftnftm 
1 i h g a m'. This means ' The action of naming ' 

( 206 ) 

(a substance) by Beings higher than ourselves, 
is the mark of ( the existence of ) that subst- 
ance ", because, as the next s li t r a says, " they 
name substances on account of direct vision of 
them'* (II. i. 19). Their vision being developed by 
Yoga, they see substances invisible to us, like 
air, or a k & s a and then name them. Hence the 
fact of their naming a substance is a proof of its 
existence. This s (i t r a occurs amidst the proofs 
of invisible substances beginning with V kyu and 
has absolutely no reference to God. 

B. Nydya, 

The Nyftya and the Vai^eshika agree 
in fundamental points ; the Vai$eshika being a 
school of Metaphysics tinged with Logic and the 
N y a y a, being a school of Logic tinged with Me- 
taphysics. The N y a y a, therefore, does not ana- 
lyse the universe into its constituent parts. It 
discusses Metaphysical questions only casually. 
It does not define Pad^rtha or Dravya, but 
P r a m e y a, what is to be proved. The Prameyas 
are twelve, A t m ci , body, sense-organs, sense-ob- 
jects, cognition, manas, activity, fault, transmigration^ 
fruit, pain, and beatitude {^N y. SUt^l.g.) The 
five Elements, Time and Space are introduced 

The existence of the A t m <^ is proved first by 
the consideration that a sense cannot be the soul, 

( 207 ) 

^' because, through both sight and touch, we 
apprehend a single object" (/^. III. i ), which would 
be impossible unless something other than those 
sense-organs synthesised those sensations into an 
object. The body is not the soul, because " when 
the body is burnt up ( after death ) sin would be- 
come non-existent," for there would be none to 
suffer for the sin ( /d. III. 4.) It might beheld 
( by some ) that the mind is the soul, " because the 
argument that establishes (the existence of) the 
At ma apply (also> to the mind." {lb. III. 16). Not 
so, " since there is a knower and an organ of know- 
ledge " ( /*. III. 17) This A t m a is eternal "be- 
cause to him that is born there occur joy, fear and 
grief by relation to his memory of previous ex- 
perience" {lb. III. 18.) "because of his desire for 
the ( mother 's) breast from his habit of eating 
before death {lb. III. 22) and because we do not 
see any birth devoid of desire." {lb. III 25). 

The five " elements are earth, water, fire, air, 
and Aka§a." {lb. i. 13). "Of odour, taste, colour, 
touch and sound, those ending with Touch (are 
qualities) of Earth ; rejecting each preceding one 
in succession they belong to water, fire and air ; 
the last belongs to Akftsa." (lb. III. 61). The 
elements are found both in the objects of sense 
and in the sense-organs, "because only what have 
the qualities can be the organs (which can perceive 
them)a^. HI. 6.) 

( 208 ) 

The N y a y a, like the V a i 9 e s h i k a, believes 
in the eternal existence of atoms. " As the atoms 
have real existence, no p r a 1 a y a (destroys them). 
What are beyond being cut are atoms. *( If it is 
said that) it is impossible (for such a thing to exist), 
because the A k ft 9 a must (pervade) and divide 
(the atom, for otherwise) A k ft 9 a would not be all- 
pervasive, (we reply that) the words * within ' and 
* without ' apply to effects and do not exist in 
what are not eflFects because they refer to what are 
other than causes." {lb, IV. 81-85). (If it is 
argued that the atoms) must have real parts, be- 
cause all bodies having form must have a collec- 
tion of parts and (also) all bodies that conjoin 
(with others), (we reply that) the atoms cannot be 
given up because it would occasion a regressus 
ad infinitum and because a regressus ad infinitum 
is not proper " {lb. IV. 88-90;. 

As the Yoga added to the S & 9 k h y a 
the conception of an I s v a r a, so the N y ^ y a 
to the Vaiseshika. But the 1 s v a r a of 
the Ny^ya SAtrasis concerned only with 
the adjustment of fruits of action. Some ac- 
tibns are followed by consequences immediate 
and visible ; but others are not. This is ad- 
justed by a * Supreme Being called 1 $ v a r a. 
"t^varaisa cause, for we do not see (all) the 
fruits of action. (If it said), this can not be, for 
in the absence of (the individual's) action, fruits 

( ao9 ) 

cannot come forth, (we reply) action is not the 
(whole) cause, for (it is) caused by Him." {Jb. IV. 
19-21). The later N y d y a developed the notion 
of God, the creator. Udayana's KusumdHjali 
is devoted to this one question. Its main argu- 
ments will be summarised in the next chapter. 
The N y d y a ranged itself against idealism 
and affirmed the existence of the external world, 
independent of the cognizing mind, thus opposing 
certain schools of Buddhism and, in later days, 
the Pratyabhijfift school and the more dege- 
nerate forms of the Ad vaita. "If it is said that 
Real existence cannot be perceived because things 
are known only by means of cognition, just as the 
existence of a cloth cannot be perceived when the 
threads are removed (/. e. cognition is a part of 
real existence and objects cannot exist independent 
of cognition), (we say, no,) for this is no argument on 
account of the falsehood of the assertion in the ana- 
logy. The threads and the cloth are different entities, 
(tho ugh) they are not perceived separately because 
of the inherence (of the thread in the cloth)", 
a*. IV. 91-93). "(The theories that] the relation 
of cognizer and cognised is like the relation [of 
man) to things (experienced) in a dream, or like 
jugglery lor the city of the G a n d h a r v a s or a 
mirage cannot be proved, because of the absence 
of any proof." {lb. IV. 96-98.) 

It is noteworthy how each school of thought 

( 210 ) 

has used a diflerent name for the man other thaa 
his bodies, the study of whose nature is the start- 
ing part of all philosophy. The S A ft k h y a 
calls him Purusha, a word of uncertain etymo- 
logy, • but originally meaning * male/ a very curious 
designation of the inactive witness of the dance of 
Prakfiti. The Drashta of the Yoga is a 
very appropriate term. The A g a m a schools 
prefer Chit or Chaitanya, which in later 
Samskritat least, means active and thus denotes 
the A g a m a conception fairly accurately. The 
V e d A n t a popularized the word A t m el, which 
means, self, nature, essence, in accordance with 
its tendency to regard the whole world as being 
rooted in one noumenon, Brahma, that which 
grows into or that which fills the Universe. 
The Vaiseshika and Nyiya schools also 
accepted the word, perhaps because they felt it to 
be a non-committal term. They attributed so many 
functions to ' the soul ' that they avoided words like 
Purusha, or Chaitanya which had definite 
connotations attached to them and preferred the 
vaguer word A t m ft. It must not be forgotten that 
these words, though in later philosophical discus- 
sions treated as synonymous, have definite mean- 
ings depending upon their derivation and their 
definition in each School. 

1 The Vedic etymology, he who bides (si) in this strong 
hold (par) (^o^. Brdh. zlii. 6. 2.-1.) is iancifnl. 

( ^11 ) 

Thus though the S A n k h y a, the Yoga, the 
Vai$eshika and the N y A y a are all schools of 
individualism, yet we see that there is a great difTer- 
ence between the P u r u s h a of the former two 
and the A t m a of the latter two. *Purusha'is 
pure c h i t i $ a k t i (power of conciousness, of illu- 
mination) and nothing more. But in the N y & y a- 
Vaiseshika systems the A t m <L is the sub* 
stratum of a number of qualities — involuntary vital 
action, voluntary action, desire, aversion, cognition, 
pleasure, pain, etc., — in fact, all that is described by 
the S & n k h y a, as the modifications of the internal 
organ ; this difference is due to the difference of 
thedar§ana. the original view-point and the 
consequent difference of the line of investiga* 
tion adopted. The S & fi k h y a- Y o g a schools 
base their metaphysical and psychological theories 
on their realization of Pure Being ( 
1 y a) as the result of the discrimination of mutable 
Prakfiti from immutable Pur us ha. Con- 
ciousness of Pure Being is described as ' the con* 
elusive, incontrovertible absolute and pure know- 
ledge ' I am not I ', nought is mine, I am not ' 
{Sdhkh, Kdr. Ixiv). A sense of being with 
the consciousness of Ego dissolved and the cons- 
ciousness of non-ego ignored, is best called K a i v a- 
1 y a, alone-ness, as the S & h k h y a has named it. 
To one who experiences K a i v a 1 y a, all change, 
mutability, all phenomenality cannot but be re- 

( 2I5» ) 

garded as outside, objective ; hence P r a k |r i t i^ 
the changeable, in his view includes all that is not 
F u r u s h a ; and the mental functions of knowledge, 
action and desire which the ordinary man regards 
as belonging to the world of self and not to the 
outside world, is but Prakrit! to the Sftn- 
k h y a. But the V a i $ e s h i k a or the N a i y ft- 
yika has as his goal the abolition of pain 
consequent on birth In physical bodies which 
is caused by desires for objects. He therefore 
sets about analysing the composition of objects 
and when he learns to estimate them at their 
proper value, he ceases to hanker for them,, 
thereby abolishing birth and pain. His aim 
being the cessation of the pain of compulsory 
incarnation of the soul, when this point is reached 
his analysis of the world stops. Hence he regards 
the ft t m ft as possessing all the qualities which 
cannot be explained by the seven substances — earth 
water, fire, air, ft k ft $ a , time and space — which are 
outside man. These qualities of the fttmft are 
involuntary vital action, voluntary action, desire^ 
aversion, cognition, and control of the organs of 
sense (j !i ftn e n d r y a s) and the organ of atten- 
tion (m a n a s). The realization of the fttmft as 
possessed of these qualities is as legitimate a goat 
of life and a release (m o k s h a) as that realized by 
any other discipline ; and hence theVai^eshika 
explanation of the cosmos is as valid as any othen 

( «3 ) 

It is not a philosophy subservient to or leading up 
to any other but one solution of the riddle of the 
universe, self-consistent and final and as true as 
any other. 

The monists of India, on account of the 
fancied superiority of their metaphysics to the 
atomic theories of the Vaifeshikas and the 
N a i y ft i k a s superciliously turned the names 
of the founders of these schools, Kanftda and 
Gautama, to ridicule. The former name is by 
them paraphrased as K a o a b h u k, eater of atoms 
and the latter is as Akshap&da, he who has 
eyes in his feet, to help him in his search of atoms. 
But the atomic theory is by no means a less valid 
explanation than any other. 

( 214 ) 
Section V. PHrvamtmdritsd. 

The Vedic literature consists of various strata 
of different ages mixed up in almost hopeless 
confusion. First of all, there are the very ancient 
hymns belonging to the age when the ritual was 
yet simple and the Rishis * sang hymns in 
praise of I n d r a and Vishnu, Mitra' and 
V a r u 9 a as occasion arose for them and propitiated 
them with meat and soma to avert a calamity 
that immediately threatened them in their individual 
or tribal lives or to gain some urgent desire of 
their hearts, f There are, again, other hymns 
which show that the sacrificial ritual had already 
become highly complicated and which refer to 
the various functionaries therein. % 

When the age of inspiration ended, the work 
of compilation of the hymns floating in the 
memory of the people began. Between the compost- 
tion of the hymns (?iks) and prose formulce 
( Y a j u s ) and their compilation as the V c d a s 
there must have elapsed a period long enough to 
cause the original purposes and occasions of the 
mantras to be largely forgotten. The whole 
literature was now the holy $ r u t i and had to 
be used for recitation during sacrifices so that no 
part of the precious revelation might be wasted. 

* The Eishis were originally 'rime-masters*, 
t c. g. ^. V. X. 103-8.12. 
t e. g^ R, V. 1. 162,3. 

( 2IS ) 

Even in this early age, the sentences of the hymns 
were dislocated from their context and used as 
Mantras and not understood as literature. 
There is a tradition referred to in the Vishnu 
Pur Ana (III. iv. ii.), that at first the Veda was 
one and called the Yajurveda and Vyftsa* 
separated it into four, each part being a collection 
of the mantras to be recited by one class of 
priests officiating at the sacrifices. The A d h- 
V a r y u was the actual performer of the sacrifices 
and for his use was compiled the Yajurveda 
which contains the Mantras (poetical or R i k 
and prose or Y a j u s), with which he was to accom- 
pany each detail of the ceremonies from the 
simple Dar$apOrnamftsa ishfi (new and 
full moon sacrifices) to the highly complicated 
A^vamedha and Purushamedha (Horse- 
sacrifice and human sacrifice). The Yajurveda 
is the most complicated, because it is the Veda 
of the Adhvaryu who performs the actual 
work of the sacrifice and hence it follows closely 
the Qrder of the various ceremonies. We can 

* Dattfttreya is also said to have done the same work 
perhaps in another age. Mdkgha ziv. 79. 

t Probably the first Yajurveda referred to in the Vtshnu 
Purdna contained the Mantras of the other priests till 
VyAsa compiled separate manaals for the different classes of 
priests. £ven now the hiek Tajur Veda is a confused mass of 
S a m h i t a and Br&hmaq.a, which Yftjnavalkya separated into 
the Vajasaneya Samhita and §atapatha Brdhmana which together 
form the White Tajur Veda, 

( 2I6 ) 

therefore understand why it was the first to be 
compiled. The Hot 4 invited the Gods to the 
sacrifice and praised them by reciting hymns. In 
a sense he represented the ancient ^ i s h i s who 
composed the hymns, for his function was to 
invoke the Gods by praise. His recitations were 
long and not generally correlated to definite acts 
as in the case of the Adhvaryu. Hence in the 
Veda compiled for him was included many of 
the original hymns in the form in which they were 
composed, i. e. without detaching individual verses 
from their context. Hence it happens that the 
Rig- Veda contains so many connected composi- 
tions — a fact which has led some European 
scholars to think that it was compiled earlier than 
the Yajur-Veda while others go so far as to 
regard it as a ' historical ' work. The U d g A t 4 
was the singer of select hymns during the sacrifices 
and for his benefit the Sdma-Veda was compiled. 
Thus was constituted the Traytvidyd, which 
contained what may be called the national or 
rather tribal religious ceremonial of the ancient 
Hindus. The domestic ceremonial, which affected 
home life and embodied the wishes and aspirations 
of the ordinary folk, was in the earliest times the 
office of the Atharvana, the family * medicine* 
man' and the hymns used by him were collected 
in his Veda. Ev^en the ^ i g V e d a, as it is, 
contains bits absolutely like theAtharvaVeda 

( 317 ) 

as wfifcn jR. V. VIII. 91-5 refers to the desire of a 
maiden for a peculiar hirsute .decoration and the 
necessary ritual to secure that growth. Later on, 
when the increasing complexity of the sacrificial 
ritual requu-ed a supfem^ director of ceremonies 
called B r a h m 2L and a distinct house ritual, called 
G ( i h y a, * nominally based on the Tray! 
(the three V e d a s) was evolved, the A t h a r v a 
Veda was technically associated with the 
B r a h m A and actually fell into comparative 
oblivion. From the earliest times the T r a y J- 
vidyd, the imposing ritual of the sacrifices 
loomed large in the imagination of the Hindus 
and from the frequent references to it and its 
constant glorification in the early literature, have 
resulted two misconceptions (i) that the A t h a r v a 
Veda is later than the others, (2) that it deals 
with black magic and is somewhat disreputable. 
The Atharva Veda contains a great number 
of S (i k t a s also found in the ?, i g V e d a ; but 

* The elaborate series of hoase rites, from GarbhAdh^nam 
toSapi^^ikaraQam, which are the chief relics of Yedip 
^ieremonies still fairly common among the * twice-born' form the 
■o-called Smftrta Karma, while the Tajflas are the 
^ranta, though the Mantras accompaying both belong to 
tbe same age. The M a n t r a s of the former, collected in groups 
called Mantrap^ (ha or Mantraprasna were floating 
^ymns from ancient times and, of course, never formed part of 
the T rayi which was compiled for purposas of T a j & a, and 
ve hence generally regarded as K h i 1 a, f ray^nents of a supposed 
^t oanoa. 

( "8 ) 

this does not mean that the former borrowed from 
the latter. They were compiled for differeot 
purposes and tapped the same original source^ 
Just because it was at least as old and as sacred 
as the rest that it was assigned to the B r a h m & 
when that office was invented. The magic of the 

Y a j u r- V e d a is as primitive as that of the 
others. The Adhvaryu regards everything he 
touches or uses, stones, grass, fire, as a fetish and 
flatters the spirit behind it so that he may not 
harm him, just as the Atharvana charms 
neualgia away from a man by praising the spirit 
that causes it The following extract from the 
Apastamba Stauta Sutras with the mantras 
referred to there proves the magic of the Vedic 

Y a j fi a s to be as crude as any other magic. 

" Having heated the SftnnAyya vessels on 
the Gftrhapatya fire with the invocation, * may 
the R^kshasas be burned, may those intent on 
mischief be burned,* taken the CJpavesha with 
•you are bold, give me the B r ah m a * (Z^iV. 
Sam; 1. i-7), taken out from the north side of the 
Gftrhapatyafire a live coal with * May quarrel 
and fear be removed, may the army that comes 
(against us) be removed,' he (the Adhvaryu) 
places the pot on it (the live coal) with * Thou art 
the milk-kettle ofMAtari^va, thou art Heaven, 
thou art Earth, thou art the bearer of all, be firm 
(in your place on the coal), by (your) transcendent 

( 219 ) 

power ; do not fall down, {lb, 1. 1-3). Or ( he places 
the pot on the coal) with, * O, two cooking pots. 
I place (you) on (the fire) for avoiding the mis- 
carriage of the Yajfla. May (you) hold for 
I n d r a's sake the boiled (milk), yielded by the 
cows, and the curd, {Tait Brdh. III. vii. 4. 34,) 
Having placed fire round the pot, from right to 
left with * Become heated by the t a p a s of 
B h f i g u and A fi g i r a s ' {Tait. Sam, I. i. 7), he 
places the § ft k h a p a V i t r a in it (the pot) with 
the tips to the East with 'you are the p a v i t r a 
of the V a s u s hundredfold, you are the p a v i t r a 
of the Vasus, thousandfold, {Tait. Sam I. i. 3). 
He places the Sakhftpavitra (with the tips) to 
the North in the morning. Having grasped the 
pot from behind, he is silent. Or he is (so), holding 
the p a v i t r a. [Having thus made the pot ready 
for boiling the milk, he proceeds to milk the cow.] 
He grasps the ropes (for tying the calf, before 
milking), with *Thou art the rope of A d i t V The 
Yajamftna consecrates (the rope) which is being 
grasped with, 'Thou art of thirty-three threads. 
Comfe with holiness. May this rope for tying the 
calf serve the calf well (not hurt it).' {Tait. Brdh. 
HI. vii. 4. 33). He (the Adhvaryu) ties the 
calf (to a post) with ' Thou art P a s h A, {Tait. 
Brdh. III. vii. 4. 39). He invites (the milker) with 
* Tell me (when the calf has been) taken (to its) 
mother.' (The milker) calls (the Adhvaryu) 

( aao ) 

with * I take (the calf to its mother).' He takes 
the calf with * I take (O cows, your) calves to you 
who are without disease and are the increase of 
wealth' {Tait. Br ah. III. vii. 4. 40.) The A d fa- 
vary u commands, ' Do not walk between the 
cows to whom the calves have been taken and the 
Vihftra (the place of the three sacred fires).' If 
(any one, goes between the (calves) taken (to the 
cows) and the V i h & r a, he shall say. * Do not 
carry off the S ft n n A y y a.* (The milker) says 
* sit' The milker sits with, ' I admit calves to 
you, who are without disease and are the increase 
of wealth. I, who live, sit near you who are living, 
who are overflowing with strength- giving milk and 
ghl' {Tait Brdh HI vii. 4. 40). A ?adra shall 
not milk or shall milk. He milks into a woodea 
pot. The Yajamelna accompanies the ad* 
mitted (calf), the milked (cow), the sound of 
the streaming (mtlk) with, ^ I admit calves to 
you, who are without disease and are the in- 
crease of wealth, 'May Dy&vftprithvi milk 
for this y a j ft a. May Dhfttft, Soma, Vdyu and 
Vftta, may they give wealth to the Yajamftna 
{Tait. Brdh. HI. vii. 4. 41)." Except that the 
magic* here is more complicated than in the 
Atharva veda, there is nothing to distinguish it 

• Well does this expiala Krishna's stinging description of the 
iollowera of the veda as ^aripascbita,' uoinspired (^Bh, 6HU» 
ii. 42). Milking a cow and placing a pot on fire reqaired m 
4nach adulation of the Qods and abject fear of them I 

( aai ) 

from the latter. The four Samhitas suffixed the 
needs of a fairly long period of time. 

After this period there must have occured a 
break of culture, long enough to allow of the lang* 
xx^g^ olth^ S amhita to become obscure to a 
later generation. The language changed during 
this period to that of the Brdhmafias, which 
is midway between Vedic and classical Sams- 
krit. The meanings of the hymns having be- 
come obscure, they began to be applied indiscri- 
minately for sacrificial purposes and interpreted 
in fanciful ways. Discussions frequently arose ia 
the assemblies of the priests about details of the 
rituals, applications of mantras, etc To settle 
such questions, what were called N y & y a s were 
frequently utilized. The N y ft y a s are analogies, 
or inferences or proverbs which make statements 
probable or acceptable and are even now largely 
used for purposes of argumentation. The A h i - 
kuQdala Nyftya (the analogy of the snake 
and its coils being one and yet more than one)» 
Sthftllpulft kaNyftya ( judging of the state 
of rice in the cooking-pot by ij^xamining one grain) 
are illustrations of the humble beginnings of Logic. 
Such N y & y a s form the backbone of all b h & - 
shy as of all the modern sects. Decisions on 
considerations like these and cruder ones too are 

• OolJacob has published a ooUeetion of them under the 

( 222 ) 

scattered throughout the Br^hmanas, which 
contain besides, traditions, real or imaginary, 
regarding the composition of particular mantras, 
cosmogonic speculations, etc. 

In time the B r Ji h m a n a s, too were added to 
the holy canon and became fixed as a part of the 
-revealed Veda. With the extension of the 
Scripture to include *' the Mantra and Brah- 
man a," the task of the exegete became more 
difficult and complicated. The work of explain- 
ing the various discrepancies of the Veda and 
solving the various difficulties of the ritual became 
a profession and the scheme of Ny^yas* was 
developed into the Mtmftmscl S&stra. A 
collection of such is the SUtras of Jaimini. On 
them Upavarsha is said to have commented and 
Sahara wrote his BhJLshya. Jaimini is referred to 
and his opinions controverted by B&dar&yana in his 
Brahma Mtmdmsa Siitras and could not have lived 
very much later than the 6th century B. C. when 
Vedic sacrifices were so rampant as to evoke the 
Buddhist reaction headed by Gautama Siddhftrtba. 

The object of Jaimini's Sutras is to expound 
D h a r m a. •* Now, then, the investigation of 
D h a r m a (duty). D h a r m a has for its purpose 
* Mimftmsa, both Pdrva and Uttaraia stUl caUed 
Nyftya. MAdhava speaks ofJaiminiyaNyftjamAla 
and Vaiy&sika Ny4yam&la The Nyftya of €k>tama 
is a development of the same humble and popular N y ft y a g 
but on rationalistic lines. 

( 323 ) 

what follows from a scriptural injunction. Now 
(comcnences) the examination of its origin. When 
there is a connection between P u r u s h a and 
Indriyas, Buddhi* (perception) is produced. 
Such perception is not the origin (of duty), for it 
deals with what exists (at the time of perception 
while duty does not then exist) ". (P^r. Mint, 
sat. I. 1. 1-4) 

Thus according to Jaimini. the sanction of Law 
must be from what transcends perception, human 
or superhuman. Even the highest F u r u s h a 
is limited by his organs of perception and is hence 
incompetent to prescribe duty with authority. 
The authoritativeness of the Vedic injunctions is 
derived from the fact that they deal with objects 
beyond the reach of experience of man or of the 
D e V a s. Hence there is no room for an tsvara 
in the M 1 m & m s ^ system. The KarmaKftn^a 
of the Vedas, i. e.^ the Vedas minus the Upani- 
shads had not worked out except vaguely and that 
in the latest passages the idea of Brahma being 
the noumenon of the universe. Even the doctrine 
of the A t m ft, man^s continued existence apart 
from those he lives in the various bodies he in- 
habits seemed to have been an open question 
for a very long time as is proved by Nachiketas' 
second question to Yama about the continuity 

* Baddhi> intellection, is a function and not an organ 
according toMim&xpsakas and Naiyftyikas. 

( 334 ) 

of man's postmortem life with that before death 
and by Yama's remark that the Gods themselves 
were in doubt {Kath. Up, i. 20-22). The question 
was, in Gautama Buddha's time, still so fluid 
that he could ignore it while preaching his special 
displine. Similarly the original m i m ^ m s ft let 
these questions severely alone and contented itself 
with establishing the authority of the Veda and 
the binding nature of the Vedic rites. The qpXy 
possible way of proving this authority without 
invoking the sanction of a personal being, high 
or low, was to argue that the Veda existed from 
all eternity. This could be only if the words of 
the Veda were uncreate, /. e. if the connection 
between a word and the object that the word names 
were itself eternal. The Mlmdmsft S<itra& 
therefore, say : — 

'* Because the connection of sound and sense 
is unborn. Hence it conveys unerring knowledge 
with regard to matters which cannot be reached 
(by perception and inference). This is the 
authority accepted byBftdarayana, because it 
requires no further proof." {lb. I, L 5). Like Jai- 
mini, Bftdarftyana has to rely entirely on the 
final authority of the Veda to prove the existence 
of conscious Brahma, as the noumenon of the 
universe, for this cannot be proved " by perception 
and inference " ( Ved. Sut, I. i. 5). He therefore 
generally accepts the position of Jaimini that the 

( MS ) 

Vedas are eternal, though the Devas and the 
world are not so, because of the identity of names 
and forms before and after P r a I a y a {lb. ill 28 30% 

Jaimini gives the following reasons to prove 
the eternity of sounds, (i) Sound is eternal because 
it serves to convey hieaning. The object referred 
to by a name always rests, as it were, upon the 
name* {M{m, SAt. I. 1-18). (2) It is recognised by 
all simultaneously. How could this be possible 
if it were a vanishing thing? {lb, I. i-i9). (3) It 
is incommensurable. One sound repeated ten 
times is not ten sounds, as it would be if sound 
were a mutable substance. {lb I. i-20). (4) There 
are no grounds for expecting its destruction. 
{lb. I. i-2i). (5)(If sound were a modification of 
some other substance,) there would be no appropri- 
ate object to be perceived by the organ of hearing. 
Each sense-organ corresponds to an elementary 
substance in the world. Hence sound is an 
elementary substance and not a mere v i k ^ r a 
(mode) of another. {lb. I. i-22). (6) It is seen that 
the V e d a also proclaims the eternity of sound 
{lb. 1. 1. 23.) 

The objections of the N a i y & y 1 k a s to the 
theories of the eternity of sound are summarised 
in lb. I. i. 6-1 1, as follows : — 

Sound is a product because (i) We see it pro* 
duced. (2) It dies. (3) We use the phrase * he makes 
a sound '. (4) It is perceived at once by different 


( 226 ) 

persons far and near. Therefore it cannot be one 
and immutable. (5) It is susceptible of pra* 
kiritivikfiti, Sounds change from one to 
another in s a n d h i . Thus dadhiatra becomes 
d a d h y a t r a. f 6; It is augmented by the number 
of those that make it. These objections are met 
in SUtras I. 1.1217. It is admitted by both 
schools that the perception of sound is momentary. 
But the non-perception of sound which is always 
existent is due to the want of union of the bearer 
and the sound, the object of hearing. Sound 
exists always but becomes manifested as n A d a» 
(noise), conjunctions and disjunctions of air, 
when uttered by a man. These vibrations of air 
serve to connect the pre-existing sound with the 
auditorium of the hearer. The phrase ^ makes 
a sound' means the starting of these vibra* 
tions, which of course are transitory. The fact 
that many persons hear the same sound at the 
same time does not prove that it is not one and 
immutable. Herein it resembles the sun, which 
being one and immutable, is still seen by 
men remote from one another at the same time. 
In Sandhi one sound does not change into an- 
other, but the second sound (in the illustration) 
is substituted for the first. Lastly when there is 
an increase of sound, it is the manifesting n 4 d a 
(air-vibrations) that is increased, not the original 
substance, $ a b d a. 

( 227 ) » 

If we remember that in lodiaa philosophy, men* . 
tal states are modifications of matter, it is not diffi- 
cult to understand this Mtmftmsaka theory that 
the connection betvireen sound and sense is eternal. 
A mental concept of an object being a modification 
-of subtle matter is permanently attached to the 
substratum of the name of the object in the same 
grade of matter. An uttered name is n ft d a, 
which is a temporary manifestation of the eternal 
sound ; this latter is a permanent modification of 
that A k ft 9 a which is also the material of the organ 
of thought Hence a thought exists permanently 
attached to its name ; in other words n ft m a and 
r Qpa are one ; the thought and the name rise toge- 
ther in consciousness. This explanation also helps 
as to understand why mnnifestation is always 
called nftmarapa in Hindu books, and why 
Uddftlaka in trying to illustrate to §vetaketu tbe 
knowledge that makes us hear what cannot be 
heard and perceived what cannot be perceived says, 
"•As, my dear, by one clod of clay all that is made 
of clay is known, the change is a mete mattet of 
words, nothing but a name (vftchftrambhanam 
vikftronftmadheyam)" {Chdnd. Up.vli.s.) 
This idea of the eternity of the meaning of 
a word is not so ridiculously old-fashioned as some 
people think it is. Sir Oliver Lodge writes in Life 
and Mattet f which may better be entitled, *the meta^ 
physics of a physicist', " The connection betweeo 

( 328 ) 

soul and body or more generally between spiritual 
and material^ has been illustrated by the connec-^ 
tion between the meaning of a sentence and the 
written or spoken word conveying that meaning.. 
The writing or the speaking may be regarded as an 
incarnation of the meaning, a mode of stating or 
exhibiting its essence. As delivered, the sentence, 
must have time relations ; it has a beginning, middle 
and end ; it may be repeated, and the same general 
meaning may be expressed in other words ; but the. 
intrinsic meaning of the sentence itself need have 
no time relations, it may be true always^ it may 
exist as an eternal '^ now," though it may be per- 
ceived and expressed by humanity with varying^ 
clearness from time to time." (p. 115) Max Miiller 
remarks on this Mlm&msaka doctrine that the. 
philosophers of India understood that the study 
of language was an integral part of philosophy. 

" They had evidently perceived that language 
is the only phenomenal form of thought, and that,, 
as human beings possess no means of perceiving 
the thoughts of others, nay even their own thoughts,, 
except in the form of words, it was the duty of a 
student of thought to inquire into the nature of 
words before he approached or analysed the nature 
of what we mean by thought, naked thought, nay 
skinned thought, as it has been truly called, whea^ 
divested of its natural integuments, the word. They 
understood what even mo^iern philosophers have 

( M9 ) 

failed to understand, that there is a difference bet- 
ween F{?r5/^//««^ (presentation or percept) and 
Begriff (concept), and that true thought has to do 
with conceptual words only, nay, that the two, 
word and thought, are inseparable, and perish when 
separated." (Six Systems of Indian philosophy 
A 5^6). 

After establishing to his satisfaction the eternity 
and consequent authority of the Veda, Jaimini pro- 
ceeds to consider the inconvenient questions of the 
rationalists of his age with regard to those numerous 
passages of the Veda which have nothing to do with 
the Dharma ofYajfia, but deal with ordinary 
worldly matters. To explain this was invented the 
theory of Arthavida, subsidiary, explanatory 
statement. Whatever in the v e d a was not a com- 
mandment was explained away as an explanatory 
statement In the schools of the M f m ^ m s A, this 
fruitful suggestion of separating the sentences of 
the Veda into various classes was worked till ulti- 
mately was elaborated the division of Vedic sen- 
tences into five classes viz., Vidhi, Mantra, 
Nftmadheya, Nishedha, and ArthavAda. 
A V i d h i is an injunction occuring in the Veda 
and is of four kinds, (i) U t p a 1 1 i - v i d h i , an 
injunction that originates others (2) V i n i y o g a 
v i d h i , one in which the auxiliaries of sacrifice 
are mentioned (3) Prayogavidhi, injunction 
of the main sacrificial action (4) Adhikftra 

( «30 ) 

V id hi» which deals with the position one enjoy» 
as the result of a sacrifice. * A Mantra is a 
sentence that serves to remind one of matters 
connected with sacrifices. Those Mantras that 
do not serve this purpose contribute in some un- 
known way to the success of the sacrifice f.^ 
Nc^madheya includes specific names of special 
kinds of sacrifices, like Udbhid, Chitraetc. 
N i s h e d h a refers to sentences prohibiting certain 
actions. Lastly, Arthav^da passages are those 
that are subsidiary to vidhi or ni shed a and 

^ Another daaaification of Vidhis is (1) Aptlr?a 
Vidhi ref erriDg to what is ankDown, it. g, * One desirOQS of 
faieaveD should sacrifice' (2) Niyama Vidhi referring to 
what is only partially explained, e. g, ' he beats the paddy/ 
meaning, husks it. (3)Pari8amkhyft Vidhi, ezolading 
one of two alternatives. This classification has nothing to do 
with the four main classes of V i d h i s mentioned in the text. 

t It is noteworthy how the relation between Mantrsft 
and Brahama^as became reversed in the time of Jaimini, 
thus showing the enormous antiquity of the Mantrsa* 
' Jaimini's conception of the Veda as primarily dealing with 
D h a r m a can apply only to stray sentences in the B r ft h m a- 
^as and not at all to the mantras. Hencea mantrais de- 
graded to the position of a sentence which cleverly desoribes 
a sacrifioial action or perves to remind one of it {2itm, S(U. 
IT, f . Sl'Sf). Instead of the B r ft h m a 9 a being an adjunct 
to the M a n t r a, it is the reverse; the Mantras exist so as to 
•ubaerve the sacrifices ordained in the Brfthma^as. What 
a contrast to the ancient view of the Mantras as a force 
impelling the Gods, making the Gods themselves grow in 
atrength {B V. vi. 17 13, w. 441 S ) ! 

( 231 ) 

contain either praise or blame. It is of three classes 
(i) G u ci a-v ft d a is the statement of a quality con- 
trary to ordinary perception, e. g, * the sun is the 
sacrificial post ^; (2) A n u v ft d a is a statement 
agreeing with human experience, e. g. * fire is a 
remedy against cold ' ; (3) BhAtftrthavftda 
is a statement which is not related to other 
means of proof, e. g. ' Indra raised the thunder- 
bolt against Vritra '• Gradually the word 
Arthavftda acquired the meaning of what may be 
neglected and every inconvenient passage became 
an arthavftda. 

Besides the question of the eternity of the 
connection between sound and meaning, another 
metaphysical question was worked out in the 
schools of the M t m ft 9 s ft — that of A p ft r v a or 
potential energy. Sacrificial acts are not followed 
by visible (d|pishta) fruits. The question, then» 
rises, how can it act so as to produce a result in 
the future ; * action at a distance ' of time being 
inconceivable. Therefore it was conceived that 
sacrifices produced an unseen change (samskftra) 
which when the time came operated to bring about 
the fruit of the sacrifice. This idea is expounded 
by Jaimini in a brief s ft t r a (I I. i. S), **c h o d a n ft, 
again, ft ram bh a" which is thus commented on 

* For further discuHBiOD of these terms the reader i» 
referred to Dr. Th\bB,nVB edMion of the A rthasaiigrahaha, ot ^ 
which the above if a condensation. 

( 23Z ) 

by $abara. 'By chodanftwe understand A p fi r- 
va. ' ApArva, again' (exists, for) 'Arambha* 
is ordained, as in ' Let one desirous of s v a r g a» 
sacrifice.' Otherwise, the ordinance becomes fruit- 
less, as the sacrifice ends (and is not continued 
till the fruit is seen). If the sacrifice ends without 
producing anything else, the fruit cannot be (pro- 
duced) in the absence of anything. Hence it pro* 
duces (something). It cannot be said that it (the 
Yliga) does not itself die, because its fruit is 
declared ; (for) we cannot find any form of (the 
persistence ) of Karma ( other than A p r v a). 
That is said to be Karnna which takes its 
substratum (from one place) to another place; 
it cannot inhere in the A t m ^, for A t m ft is 

A t m ft ' s action (knowledge) being everywhere 
is evidence of its being everywhere and not of 
its going ( to one place ) fron) another place for 
the absence of motion does not contradict ( the 
causality of the A t m ft ). ( Moreover ) the 
material with which sacrifice was associated 
(ghf etc.) is also destroyed (burnt up) ; as the 
material is destroyed, it is inferred, the sacrifice 
too, is destroyed. The material is destroyed 
because its ashes are perceived. If it is said 
that though it is burnt, it still exists, (we reply) 
that while the existing things (ashes etc.,; are seen» 
it is not seen. If it is said that the fructification it 

( »33 ) 

evidence (of the existence of the material), one must 
•explain why it is not perceived If it is thought 
that (its not being perceived) is due to any one of 
the causes of invisibility, subtility etc, * it becomes 
speculative predication. Then it becomes a ques-* 
tioQ whether ApArva should be predicated or 
that (cause) • It is more reasonable to predicate a 
new substance and to, predicate a new property (of 
the material). If it is said that the Karma has 
no substratum, that, too, can be disproved similar- 
ly. Though a new property is predicated of it, it 
•cannot obtain motion. Hence (it is concluded) 
that the sacrifice is destroyed ; as it is destroyed, 
there exists A p 4 r v a." This A p A r v a, then, is 
the unseen substance in which inheres the fruit of 
the many sacrifices of the V e d a. 

Jaimini's sAtras are, of course, highly dis* 
appointing viewed at from the standpoint of the 
philosopher, but we must remember that Jaimini 
•does not contemplate the analysis of the universe 
from any special philosophic standpoint. Nor was 
it possible for him to do so, weighted as he was 
with an extraordinary load of ritual to be gone 
through, teeming with a crop of questions of 
exegesis, whose solutions did not require anything 

• Ct 8dnkh Kdr. vii. The fact that SaukshmyAt 
is placed at the head of the list of the causes of invisibity here 
•shows that Sahara does not quite from l9vara Krishna bat from 
a Sinkhya SAtra now unknown. 

( m ) 

more thao grammar and logic Bat his followers 
feeling that' his d arcana could hold its own 
against its rivals only if it discussed the current 
questions of philosophy included the means of 
proof (Pramftnas), thepad&rthas of the 
Universe and many other philosophical questions 
in their discussions of M f m ft m s ^. They are 
divic^ed into two sch(A)ls — the Gurumata of 
Prabhftkara and the Bh^tta of Bhatta Ku- 

The following reference to the views of the first 
of these two schools is taken from the Sarva^ 
Siddhdnta rahasya attributed to ^ankarftchftrya* 
"Dravya, Gun a, Karma, Sftmdnya, and 
Paratantratftf (dependence) are five catego- 
ries; with ^ak'ti, Sftdri$ya (similarity) and 
S a fi k h y a (number), they are eight. V i s e s h a and 
Abhftva are not (categories), separate from the 
earth and other objects in which they inhere. {lb. 
Chap, IX). A t m A is other than B u d d h i, I n d r i- 

* An incomplete mss. copy of this work with Sesha GoTinda^ 
commentary thereon was kindly plared at my disposal by Mr, 
Faravastu Bangan&thasrami proprietor of the Arsha Library, 

t Explained by ^esha GoTinda to be the SamayHya of 
ihe Vaiseshik an. "It has beginning and ending. No seasi^-. 
ble man will hold that when the material is either distroyed 
or not produced, the relation can remain independent of the 
material." Herein the Pr&bh^karas differ from the V a 1 a e-^ 

( «3S ) 

ya» and $ariras. It is not limited by space 
(vibbu), eternal. It becomes manifold in various 
bodies. It manifests itself in the cognition of objects. 
In the cognition, * I know the pot/ there are three 
things at the same time ; the pot as object ; the 
subject enters in it as ' I ', knowledge manifests 
itself as self-luminous." (16). A fairly complete 
metaphysical system was evolved by Bhatta Ku- 
milrila who lived a little before $aiikara's time, in 
his voluminous vdritika on Sahara's Bh^shya, 
divided into three parts are called Sloka vdrttika, 
Tanttmvdtttika and Tuptika, 

The doctrine of the eternity of Sabda was vio- 
lently attacked by the Nyftya, Vai^eshika and 
S ^ n k h y a schools, who all the while pretended 
the V e d d to be authoritative.* Patafijali, the author 
of Mahdbhdshya modified the theory by regarding 
the substance of the V e d a to be eternal, but the 
words not so. He says, " It is said 'the Vedas are 
not created (things); the Vedas are eternal'; their 
sense is eternal, but the order of letters (words etc.) 
is not eternal, through their diiference are produced 
the versions of the Kaphas, Kaldpas, Mudakas, 
Pippaiadakas, etc." {Mahdbhdshya IV. iii, loi.) 

Bhartphari, the famous writer of the 7th. century 
A. D., expounds the doctrine of the s phot a 
in his K&rik^ called Vakyapadiya. <* Those 
that know sound know that there are two 

• Ny, A'fte. 11. 81 ff. Vai. W. ▼!. 1. 1 ; 86.%. S4it. ▼. 46. ff. 

, ( »36 ) 

I sounds in the words that we speak ; one, the 
cause of sound; the other is used for indicating an 
object." [Vdkyapadtya 1. 44). The two sounds 
referred to are, first, what exists in the mind before 
the word is actually pronounced, and, second, the 
pronounced word. '*Some of those that follow the 
ancient path say that these two are different in 
nature. Others say, we divide in two by our 
thought what is really one. Just as the light 
<potential) in the fire-stick ( a r a n i ) is the cause 
of other lights being produced, so the sound 
( s p h o t a ) in the mind (buddhi) is the cause 
of the various sounds heard (n&da). It is first 
thought out by the mind, then associated with 
some meaning and then is grasped (by the 
hearer) as sound. N A d a is produced in succession 
(in time) ; but s p h o t a is not before or after ( /. r. 
produced in succession )• What is not successively 
produced appears as if gradually made and thus 
appears divided. As a reflection seems to take 
on the motion of the water in which it is seen (lit 
exists), being under the influence of the action of 
the water, that is the relation ofspho^a and 
ndda." {lb. i. 45-49). Spho^a is, thus, the 
potential word which exists in the mind i.e. the 
mental antecedent that is revealed by the uttered 
word, as water reveals the moon reflected in it 
Kumftrila, attacks this s p h o t a theory in his Sloka 
Pdrttika on behalf of the P&rva Mimftmsft and 

( 337 ) 

Saiikara* in his Bhdshya, ( Ved. S4t iii 29 ) od 
behalf of the Uttara Mimamsd. 

The theory of the eternity of sound, like most 
other ffleories developed in India, has its roots in 
the QLig Veda, in various hymns of which Vftgdevt 
is praised. She is often the G ft y a t r i metre per« 
sonified ; She is called Sarasvatf, Sftvitrf, 
Satarupft etc. In the BrAhma^as she 
became the solitary companion of the First Born 
(Brfthmftthe creator) and co-operated with him 
in the work of evolving Name and Form. In Sai. 
Br4A. X. vi. 5. 4., it is said, ' his mind entered into 
union with speech ' and in the same place she is 
identified with A d i t i . As she represents the 
power of the Mantras, she later became ident 
ical with the $akti of the Agamas. In the 
schools of the S a i v a cult, where the goddess 
loses her predominance, the conception reappears 
Mait. ^^vi. 22. as the $abda Brahma, first 
mentioned in the Bhartfihari, expounds the doc- 
trine in the Vdkyapadiya from the standpoint of 
the philosophy of grammar. 

Vijaana Bhikshu (who lived in the XVI cen- 
tury), in his Yogasdra-Sangraha claims the Spho fa 
theory as, belonging to the Yoga school and gives 
a clear exposition of the theory, "Sound is of 
three kinds, (i) the object of the organs of speech 
(2) the object of the sense of hearing and (3) the 
object of Buddhi alone. Of these the sound marked 

( »38 ) 

oflf (as belonging to) the throat, palate and other 
places is the object of the organs of speech, as 
produced by them, the sound produced by the 
sound in the ear and different from the organs of 
speech, is the object of the sense of hearing, as 
being perceived by it* W6rds, like 'pot,* etc, 
however, are the objects of B u d d b i alone, for 
they are grasped by the B u d d h i alone, as will 
be explained. These words manifest meanings, 
and are hence called S p h o t a (manifester). That 
word is other than the letters which are pronoun- 
ced one by one by the organ of speech, for each 
letter dies very soon (after it is uttered) and can- 
not unite (to form a word) and hence one (whole) 
word (for the ear to deal with) cannot exist and 
there will be nothing to denote the meaning (if we 
except the S p h o t &)• The cause of this S p h o t a 
is a specific effort If it were due to pronuncia- 
tion by means of many distinct efforts, it will not 
be possible to regard it as one word, and to refer 
to one meaning. The discloser of this s p h o t a is 
the cognition of the last letter preceded by a series 
of letters. To B u d d h i alone belongs the percep- 
tion of S p h o t a, for as B u d d h i alone can cognize 

• The motion of the organs of speech is what is here 
sailed the soond that is the objest of the organs of speech. 
The soand heard in the ear is the soand that is the object of 
the sense of hearing. 

( 339 ) 

a succession ( of letters) it is simpler to attribute 
the disclosure of the S p hofa to the cognition of 
this succession than to anything else ; because they 

Hence the s p h o f a cannot be cognized by the 
ear, for it is impossible for the ear to grasp a suc- 
cession (of sounds), as gha followed by fa ; more- 
over, sounds (of single letters) which die in the 
instant (they are made) cannot unite (with succeed- 
ing sounds); hence, as the^impression of the letters 
already pronounced and their memory reside in 
theantat^karana, the antahkarana, alone 
can properly be the auxiliary (of the perception of 

( 240 ) 

Section VI. The Bhagavadgitd. 

It has beea already pointed out that the 
Bhagavadgttd * was an early attempt to weld 
together theVed&nta,theS&nkhya and the 
A g a m a points of view, f Two passages have al* 
ready been quoted (p. 72-3) describing the cons- 
cious supreme B rah m a — the one real cosmic ulti- 
mate of the Vedftntls. In other passages Krishna 
propounds the sharp distinction between P u r u s h a 
and P r a k f i t i deliberately using the S ft n k h y a 
technical terms. " Know F r a k |p i t i and also 
Purushatobe both without a beginning ; know 
that changes of form and g u 9 a s spring from 
F r a k 1: i t i . The origin of the making of causes 
and effects is Prakfiti; Purushais the 
experience, of pleasure and pain. P u r u s h a , es- 
tablished in P r a k ): i t i , experiences the qualities 

^ This Dame has been tracslated * tb^ song celestial ', * the 
Lord's soDg ', ete., tbongb there is absolutely no lyrical touch 
in it. This translation is perhaps due to reminiscences of 
' the song of Solomon *, and the early life of the boy Krishna' 
and his flute-playing described in the i^%t^9at;ato jn«r(fna and 
the Oitagovinda, The Bhagavodgftd is the ' divine poem '; 
or rather Hbe proclamation, in verse, by the Lord.* 

f Hence it has lent itself to the tortures of the B h&shya« 
k & r a 8 who have commented on it each from only one point 
of view. All existing translations, too, have been done 
consciously or unconsciously only from the point of view of 
one the three great modern sects — S Ankara, R&m& n u j iy a 
and M ft d h V a. 

( 241 ) 

bom ofPrakfiti; his attachment togunas is the 
cause (of his birth) in good and bad wombs. 
Onlooker and permitter, lord, experiencer, the great 
lord, and the supreme self (paramfttmft), too^ 
is he called, P u r u s h a , who is supreme here (in 
this body) *\ f xiii. 19-22) " O mighty-armed, learn 
from me the five causes declared in the S ft h k h y a 
system fas necessary) for the accomplishment of 
all actions ; the body, the agent, the several organs, 
the various kinds of several activities, and the 
presiding deities, the fifth; whatever action man 
does by his body, speech and mind, right or wrong 
these five are the causes thereof. That being so, 
he who from imperfect understanding sees the lone 
self to be the actor, verily that fool sees not" 
(xviii. 13-16). 

The A g a m a analysis of the Universe into 
three factors is also expounded. '* 1 9 v a r a dwells 
in the heart-region of all beings, O Arjuna, caus- 
ing, by his wonder-working, power, all beings to 
revolve as if mounted on a machine" (xviii. 61.) 
" Another,* indeed, is the Supreme P u r u s h a, 
called Paramfttma, who, having entered the 
three worlds* sustains (them), the changeless 
Isvara." (xv. 17.) 

In the previous Stanza, Krishna has been speaking of 
the mortal and immortal Pur ashas, *Moke," which word 
may mean either ** in this world," or as in xv. 18, in the S&s- 
trasnot based on the Veda, as the rationalistic Toga or 


( 242 ) 

In various passages KfiyhQa claims to be that 
t y V a r a. "I am unborn, the changeless A t m A, 
the lord of beings " (iv. 6), '^ I am the origin and 
the end of the whole universe. Nothing exists 
higher than I, O Dhananjaya. All this is 
strung on me as rows of gems on a thread." (vii. 67). 
The other two t a 1 1 v a s are the two F r a k ^ t - 
t i s of 1 ? V a r a. *' The discrete P r a k r i t i, 
that is mine, is eight-fold, Earth, water, fire, V ft y u, 
Akftsa, Manas, Buddhi and A h a £1 k & r a" 
Tvii. 4.) " The great elements, Ahankar a, Bud- 
dhi, Avyakta, the organs ten and one, the 
five ranges' of the (sense) organs, desire, hate, 
pleasure, pain, the (bodily) whole, intelligence, 
constancy, this is the field (k s h e t r a) described 
briefly along with its modifications." (xiii. 5-6). 
This is the lower Prakfiti, corresponding to 
the Idamtft of the Sftktas, A$uddha- 
m ft y a of the § a i v a s, A c h i t of the Vaishna- 
vas. "Know my other Prakfiti, higher than 
this, who becomes living (J 1 v a), O mighty-armed, 
(and) by whom this Universe is upheld." (vii. 5). 
" Being a portion of myself, it becomes in the world 
of the living an eternal living being and attracts to 
itself the sense-organs of which Manas is the 
sixth", (xv. 7.) This category is called in the Aga- 
masTejas orOjas and these words occur ^in 
XV. 12-14. " What T e j a s (light-energy) in the si^n 
brightens up the world, what in the moon, and wh 


( «43 ) 

in fire, that Tejas know to be mine. I enter 
the Earth and support life by my O j a s (energy) ; 
becoming Soma, the essence, I nourish all 
plants. Becoming Vai^v&nara (the fire of life), 
I enter the bodies of breathing beings and united 
with P r ft 9 a and A p ft n a (two kinds of winds 
on which the vital fire is carried), digest the 
four kinds of food." 

These three systems Kfish^a, in other passages^ 
tries to transcend and he indicates a Supreme Rea- 
lity, higher than the conscious One Brahma of the 
Vedftntls, the dual PurushaandPrak|:iti 
of the Sftnkhyas and the triple tsvara, Chit 
and A c h i t of the A g a m i k a s. This is called 
•Brahma-tat' (vii. 29.), 'Aksharam Brahma 
paramam' (viii. 3.), * my supreme abode' (viii. 21.), 
'the supreme seat' (viii. 28.). Kpshna calls him- 
self **the pratishthft of Brahma, the undy- 
ing, the changeless, the eternal, the Dharma, the 
unending bliss " (xiv. 27). Pratishth4 means 
pedestal, and hence vehicle. As Krishna's ac- 
knowleging a higher entity than himself goes 
against the grain of all schools of Vedftnta, 
every commentator, from §afikara onwards has 
expended a good deal of ingenuity in explaining 
away the obvious meaning of this passage. § 

§ The Tarioas interpretations of this eloka are discasBed 
in my forthcoming Stud^ of the Bkagavadgtta. 

( 244 ) 

This ' Supreme abode ' which Kpshqa differen- 
tiates so carefully from himself, the F u r u s h o t- 
t a m a, and also from a Furusha, higher than 
himself, whom he seems to refer to by the adjectives- 
Kavi, Purana, etc. in vi ji-9., and by the name 
Adi Purusha in xv. 4, is frequently called 
^Padam^ or, Gati^ path. "Verily there exists 
higher than that A v y a k t a (1. e. M fi 1 a p r a* 
k|:iti) another Avyakta (undifferentiated, 
noumenon) eternal, which is 'not destroyed, when 
all beings are destroyed. It is called Avyakta 
(the absolute), A k s h a r a (the unchanging) ; they 
call it the Supreme Path. Having reached it, no 
one returns. That is my Supreme abode." 
(viii-20-2i}. "There* the sun does not shine, not 
the moon, nor fire; having gone there they 
return not ; that is my Supreme abode." (xv. 6.). 
In this "Supreme abode" the author of the 
Bhagavad Gttd finds the one noumenon into 
which the ultimate t a 1 1 v a s of the other schools 
merge. This is the foundation of all that is ; on 
which are established Purushas from the lowest 
to the highest, out of which rise all the elements 
of the evolved world. It is not conscious being. 
nor is it unconscious being but *' that beyond," ' the 
knower and the known and the Supreme fixed 
dwelling place ' (xi-38.) 

* In oppoiition to the world supported by the is yara refer- 
red to in XT. 12. 

( 245 ) 

This Supreme Reality as Kpsbna coneeives 
it is different from the Nir^unaBrabmaof 
^afikara. This latter is the Sagu^a Brahma 
or conscious Universal Being shorn of * name and 
form ' used for purposes of meditation ; when 
these distinctions are negatived, it is the higher. 
{Ved. SU BhAsh. iv. iii. 4.) Begioningless 
A V i d y ft ( ignorance ) according to ^ahkara leads 
us to attribute *name and form' to that which 
is not thus limited and this, according to Safikara, 
is the P a r a m ( higher ) B r a h m a , which is Sat, 
and opposed to A v i d y 4 which is A s a t . This 
doctrine of A v i d y ft being the cause of ' name 
and form ' is not found in the Bhagavad GttA ; 
nor again the doctrine of M ft y ft , which Sah- 
kara's later followers have elaborated, by which 
they conceived that the P a r a m B r s^ h m a , the 
one without attributes, who is Sat, Chit, and 
An and a becomes in some inexplicable way en- 
tangled in Mftyft which is neither existent nor 
non-existent and thus evolves or rather degenerates 
into the Saguna Brahma or tfvara and 
begins to weave the universe out of nothing. 
This doctrine is a travesty of the attempt of 
the early thinkers t3 find the common noumenoa 
of Sat and As at. 

Rftmftnuja on the other hand tries to whittle 
down all the passages where Krishna des- 
cribes this supreme noumenon, ''whence speech 

( 246 ) 

returns along with mind, being unable to reach " 
this high level thought He interprets param- 
d h ft m a as a locality, a region of space which 
Nftrftyana has delimited as his special provioce 
where he holds his court seated on his serpent 
throne, the hoods of the serpent acting as his 
royal umbrella and to which he admits his ' elect ' 
as a matter of favour ! 

The teachings of the Bhagavad GUd have 
suffered more than those of any other Indian book 
from the hands of the Commentator.* It is not 
cryptic in style like the S 1 r a s ; but yet, from 
the great veneration paid to it on account of its 
supposed authorship and on account of its real 
superiority to evety other scripture, Indian or 
non- Indian, so many Bhftshyak&ras have 
attempted to use it for buttressing up their special 
theories and expended their tender mercies on it. 
Its teachings and its locutions, technical or other- 
wise have been violently tampered with by the 
commentators who did not possess what we 
call a 'literary conscience'. The commenta- 
tor did not aim to discover what exactly his 
author thought or attempted to'express, but used the 
text for supporting his own special theories. If any 
passages were inconveniently opposed to the com- 
mentator's theories, they were to be explained away 

^ e. g., it 16. has been so done to death that it is imposBible 
to discover what its author meant thereby. 

( 247 ) 

by utilizing grammatical and etymological tricks. 
Thus the Svetdsvatara Upanishad is indispensable 
to the Vaishnavas; but it sings the praises of 
Rudra and not Vishiiu. Hence Rudra is 
explained by Rafigarftmftnuja, * as Santsdta rujo 
drdvayati^ who drives away the disease of s a m s« 
Ara. {Svii. Up. Bhdsh in. 2). Inth^Chhdndogya 
Upanishad^ Jana^ruti who learns the Samvarga - 
Vidyd from Raikva is called a $ fi d r a (/^. iv. 2. 3> 
Since the Sudra is unfit for Brahma Vidyd, 
$ankara explains that the word $Adra can 
be etymologised as ^uch^drava^a, the rush- 
ing of grief. (Vid. SUt. Bhdsh. I. iii. 4.). Bhagavad 
Gttd xiv. 27 is explained in two possible ways 
by $aAkara« Everywhere it is a case of how incon- 
venient passages can be explained away and not 
what the original author thought. The more in- 
genuity displayed by the commentator, though 
in violation of what we nowadays regard as 
laws of evidence, the greater is the admiration of 
the devout follower. Even European scholars 
have quietly succumbed to the spell of ^ahkara's 
verbal gymnastics so much so that Max Mulleri 
Deussen and Gough in translating passages from the 
Upanishads put into them matter found not in the 

♦ A recent Vaisb^va oommentator of the UpaniBhads 
who slaviiibly follows ^snkara, except where Vi^itbt&dvaita 
poiDts have to be driven in. Pfto ftnuja did not comment on 
the Upanishads, 

( ^8 ) 

text but only in Sankata Bhdshym. No interpreter 
of other people's thoughts, especially the thoughts of 
the ancients can escape reading some of his own 
thoughts into his author's book, but we might at 
least honestly strive to minimize this tendency 
and strenuously avoid reading a third man'» 
thoughts also therein. 

Besides this one fruitful source of confusion, 
another more potent one has also been operative. 
These different schools of Ved&nta have in 
modern India all become orthodox revealed reli- 
gion. The Vedftnta being orthodox, it was felt 
that the other schools ought to be assimilated to 
it and hence the commentator has felt it necessary 
to furnish the Sftiikhya, Pfirva Mtmftmsft 
and Vaiseshika schools with a Gbd for whom 
Kapila, Jaimini and Ka^&da had no place or need in 
their systems ; to mix up the tsvaraofYoga, 
the ParamAtma of Nyftya and Brahma 
ofVedftnta; to confuse the non*committal word 
PurushaofSftnkhya with the JtvAtmiof 
the Vpanishad\ to identify Brahma, Param- 
Itmd, P uru shottama and tf vara wher- 
ever they occur in the Bhagavad Gtid. 

This spirit has in recent times been further 
complicated by the necessity for extolling the 
A d V a i t a at the expense of the other schools. 
Hence has been invented the extraordinary theory 
of the temporary validity of the other schools as 

( ^49 ) 

steps leading to the A d v a i t a, which MadhusA* 
dana Sarasvatt propounded in his PrasikAna hheda 
and VijMna lSti'^'Ai\im\A% SAhkhya pravadiana 
BhAshya. {Vide Muir's Original Sanskrit texts 
ill. pp. 194-202). The immediate reality of which 
every one can be certain is the momentary ex- 
periences of changing states of conciousness, the 
kaleidoscopic changes of Chittavfitti. Meta- 
physics is the attempt to classify them» pigeon- 
hole them under general categories which will 
systematize them, reduce the chaos of immediate 
experience into an intelligible cosmos. These 
cosmic ultimates must necessarily be concepts 
of the mind and not objective realities indepen- 
dent of the mind. The mind analyses its own 
experiences for the purpose of guiding its own 
function in ordered ways, so as not to be a 
helpless waif in the buffeting of the waves of 
experiences and memories. The fact that diff- 
erent minds are attracted by different methods 
of metaphysical analysis indicates that minds them- 
selves are coloured by different temperaments 
and hence each self-consistent metaphysical systemi 
if it explains all the experiences of the inquiring 
mind is as valid as the others. Cosmic ultimates 
are not material, objective realities that can be 
reached or acquired. There cannot possibly be any 
merit in devoutly believing in the 'correctness' 
or orthodoxy of any particular system. But 

( 2S0 ) 

each mind has to find out what system attracts 
it» what method of analysis appeals to it and 
following that method, analyse its experiences, 
train to distinguish its place in the cosmos, so 
that the enlightening consciousness bound up 
with it might 'free' itself from the mind in which 
it is involved and soar to its own levels where* 
from there is no return to bondage. 



The World-Process. 

^HE question of the nature of the world- pro- 
cess, what kind of change in the material 
of the universe underlies its endless Be- 
comiog has also been variously answered. The 
material of which any substance is made is called 
Upftdftna Kftra^am; we have seen in the 
last chapter that the material of the world is held 
by the Nydya-Vaiseshika school to be heteroge* 
neous — nine different substances going to make up 
the cosmos. All the other schools teach that the 
material cause of the world is homogeneous, the 
Sft£ikhya- Yoga regarding it as unconscious mat- 
ter and the rest as conscious Brahma. Hence 
have arisen two opposed theories, called the 
Arambha-v&da, the theory of atomic com* 
bination and the Parinftmav&da, the theory 
of transmutation. The former theory holds the 
atoms of matter, /. e. of elemental earth, water, fire 
and air to beArambhaUpftdftnam, lit 
originating material, material which originates all 
objects of the world without losing each its own 
specific nature, just as yarn, when woven into clothe 

i 2S2 ) 

Still retains its own character as yarn. In the 
other theory the cause of the world is Pari- 
nftma Upftdinam, material which undergoes 
transmutation, /. e., loses its distinctive character 
when evolving into objects, just as milk loses its cha* 
racter as milk when it becomes curd, as the flower 
is no more the flower when it becomes the fruit 

This divergence of theory with regard to the 
tiature of the world-process necessarily led to a 
difference of view with regard to the relation of 
t:ause and effect The Nyftya-Vai$eshikas hold the 
Asatk&ryavftda, the theory of the non- 
existence of the cause in the effect, and the other 
schools hold the opposite theory — the Satkftrya- 
V ft d a, the identity of cause and effect, the poten- 
tial pre-existence of the effect in the cause. 

A. Arambha vAda. 

KaQftda, in Vai^. SUt. VII. ii. 7. says, *" causal 
and effected substances are not one and identical, 
because unity and identity are not ci^nized bet- 
ween them." Yarn is the cause of the cloth into 
which it is woven but we cc^nize yarn as dif- 
ferent from doth. The connection of cause and 
effect is hence one of coinherence, Samav&ya. 
"That is coinherence whence (we say) of cause 
and effect, this is here." lb. VII. ii. 26. The cao- 
jiinction of a thread and a pot on which it lies 
is accidental, but that of a mat and the grass 

( »53 ) 

blades of which it is constituted isSamavftya 
coinberence. " A substance is said to be a cause 
on account of its inhering in its effects." lb. X. 
ii. I. The ultimate substances of the universe 
are the causes of all objects, which are produced 
by their conjunctions. These constituent sub- 
stances preserve each its own qualities but yet 
combine to produce objects with qualities previously 
non-existent. "An effect is non*existent previous 
(to its being produced) because actions and qua- 
lities cannot be predicated of it." lb. IX. i. i. 

The same subject is referred to by Gautama 
in the Nydya S^fras IV. 48-50. The first of these 
Sfitras explains the opponent's view, (Pfirva- 
pak sh am) and the succeeding two, the view of 
the author of the Sfitras (S t d d h ft n t a m). They 
run as follows : — 

" ( The effect, before it is produced, ) is neither 
non-entity, nor entity, nor again entity-non-entity 
because entity and non-entity are incongruous." 
Ny. SUt IV. 48. On this V4tsyay4na comments 
thus: — " Before (an effect is ) produced, the effect 
to be produced cannot be a -non-entity, because 
of the necessity of the material, 1. e,, a particular 
material is used for producing a particular object ; 
all materials do not produce all objects. Hence it 
cannot be held to be a non-entity. It is not an 
entity ; because it is not admissible to predicate 
existence of that which is produced, before its 

( 254 ) 

production. It is not an entity-non-entity, because 
-entity and non* entity are incompatible with each 
other, for entity is the admission of an object 
and non-entity is the denial of an object. These 
two are opposed to each other and not the same". 
This argument is refuted by Gautama in the 
next two sfttras. "That which is produced is 
truly a non-entity before its production, because 
both its production and destruction are witnessed 
by us." {lb. 49.) "(Though the effect before its 
production) is a non-entity, it is determined by the 
mind", /. e. conceived by the mind. {lb. 50.) 

This fundamental position of the Vaiseshika 
and the NyAya Schools was forced on them by 
their scientific (as opposed to metaphysical) temper. 
When we deal with the actual objectK of the 
universe, analyse and reconstruct them, we find 
that qualities which do not exist in the constituents 
appear when an object is constituted out of them 
and that therefore the AsatkftryavAda rests cm 
a solid basis of experimental fact. That in the 
later developments of Indian philosophy, this 
theory was eclipsed by the rival one of the S a t- 
k&ryav^da was due to the fact that the founda* 
tions of science laid by the V a i § e s h i k a s and 
N a i y ^ y i k a s of old were overlaid with a load of 
verbal gymnastics and dull dialectics, just as in 
Europe, the science of ancient Greece was choked out 
of life by the logic of the Schoolmen. But that the 

( 2SS ) 

Asatk&ryavftda itself is a valid concept, ac- 
cepted by modern science is proved by the following 
extracts from Sir Oliver Lodge's Li/e and Matter. 
** A property can be possessed by an aggregation of 
atoms which no atom possesses in the slightest 
degree." ( 73. p. 91 ) " It must not be thought that 
aggregation only produces quantitative change and 
leaves quality unaltered. Fresh qualities altogether 
are liable to be introduced or to make their appear- 
ance at certain stages — critical stages — in the 
building up of a complex mass.'' ( li. p. 186. ) " It 
may be said that a sun differs from a dark planet 
only in size ; for it is just the fact of great size 
which enables its gravitative shrinkage and earth- 
quake-subsidence to generate an immense quantity 
of heat and to maintain the mass for eons at an 
excessively high temperature, thereby fitting it to 
become the centre of light and life to a number 
of worlds. The blaze of the sun is a property which 
is the outcome of its great mass. A small perman- 
ent sun is an impossibility. Wherefore, properties 
can be possessed by an aggregate or assemblage of 
particles which in the particles themselves did not 
in the slightest degree exist." (/5. p p. 72-3). 

The Nyftya-Vai^eshika theory of the 
production of the cosmos by perpetual conjunctions 
and disjunctions of atomic as well as non-atomic 
substances is called Arambha-vftda. The 
basic axiom of the Vaiseshika SUtras is " D r a v y - 

( ^56 ) 

l^idravyftntaram ftrabbante" {/6. 1. 1 

10) » substances originate other substances, without 

themselves being destroyed. Probably as R&mfl- 

naja points out in his Sri Bhdshya, ILL 15, the 

word ftrabh isft<flabh,to touch, to grasp and 

the Vai^eshika conception of the essential cosmic 

process is that the elementary substances embrace 

one another to form objects and while such a 

conjunction lasts, a new property is produced ; 

when an object is destroyed, the atoms are dis* 

joined, that property disappears and the atoms are 

free to form fresh conjunctions. This conception 

is the same as the picture of the behaviour of atoms 

in the atomic theory of modern chemistry. 

The atoms were conceived as '* round, extreme- 
ly minute, invisible, incapable of division, eternal 
in themselves but not in their aggregate forms ". 
(Davies, Hindu PhilosophVy p. 128). They were 
called a n u (atom) orparam&Qu (ultimate atom). 
The combination of two atoms constitues a 
dvya^uka, (two-atom), or molcule. Molecules 
combine into objects. 

The formation and destruction of the vari- 
ous objects of the universe is due to the con- 
junctions and disjunctions of the four kinds of 
atoms. The following account of the evolu- 
tion of a red baked claypot out of a black 
unbaked one is taken from Siddhdnta MuktAvali 
and given as a specimen of the d^eneration to 

( «57 ) 

which the valid Vaiseshika ideas attattied for want 
of pursuing them with the help of the experimen- 
tal method of modern science. " From conjunc- 
tion with fire an action (is produced) in the 
ultimate atoms which exist combined as d v a y a« 
Q u k a s, molecules, (of the unbaked pot) ; thence a 
disjunction of the ultimate atoms from each other ; 
thence the destruction of the conjunction which 
had produced (the molecule) ; thence the destruc- 
tion, of the molecule; thence the destruction of the 
blackness (of the ultimate atom) ; then the origi- 
nation of red etc. (in the ultimate atom) ; thence 
the action auxiliary to the production (^ r a m b b a) 
of a (new) object ; thence disjunction (of the atom 
from the space it occupied temporarily); thence 
the destruction of the previous conjunction (with 
space soon after its reduction to the ^tate of ul- 
timate atoms) ; thence the conjunction (of the 
atoms) to produce (the red baked pot); thence 
the production of molecules (dvayanukas); 
thence the origin of red etc. (in the molecule)". 
This maze of words constructed by unrestricted 
ingenuity satisfies the cravings of the modern 
Hindu Nydya- Vaiseshika philosopher and doesduty 
for physics in his studies. Kndless disputations dis- 
playing a diabolical ingenuity beguile his tedium 
and satisfy his instinct for physical research ! 

Who started this complicated dance of thea- 
toms? It has been pointed out in the last chapter 

( 258 ) 

that the S&tras of Kan&dado not contemplate a su- 
preme creator. The question then arises, who first set 
the atoms in motion and started the world- process. 
Ka^ftda occupies an agnostic position with regard 
to this. He proves the existence of an adrishta, 
unseen, cause of some actions. Theseare actions other 
than that due to an impulse (e. g., the action of fire 
on a bamboo) , an impact (e. g., the action of an 
«uce) , or a conjunction (e. g., of a harness with a 
horse). These latter three actions are explicable, 
referable to a known agency. There are actions 
other than these, caused by an unseen cause. 
( Vai^ sat, V. ii. 2) , like circulation of sap in trees, 
{lb. 7.). " The upward flaming of fire, the sideward 
motion of wind, the first action of atoms and of 
m a n a s are due to an unseen cause ". {lb, 13.) Ka- 
nftda thus deliberately avoids predicating a cause of 
creation. Pra$astap&da teaches the orthodox modem 
Hindu theory of creation by B r a h m ^ and destruc-. 
tion by § i V a. " At the end of one hundred years of 
the measure of B r a h m d , He reaches the time of 
his release. Then Mahe§vara, the Lord of all 
the worlds desires to destroy (all beings) so that all 
living beings that are troubled in saipsdra may 
enjoy a night's rest. Then cease the functions 
of all the a d r i s h t a (unseen, potential result 
of acts) of all beings, that causes the bodies, 
sense-organs and great elements. Then, by the 
action of the desire ofMahesvara an(| the union 

( 259 ) 

of Atmft and the atoms, is produced a disjunctioa 
of the atoms that produce the body and the 
sense-organs. Hence their union ceases and they 
become destroyed and sink back into P a r a- 
m ft 9 u s ( ultimate atoms ). Similarly, of the great 
elements — Earth, water, fire and air, by the same 
cause, each is destroyed and absorbed into the 
following one. Then the disjoined ultimate atoms 
alone remain. Then Atm^s remain with the po- 
tential deposit of their good and bad dbeds 
attached to them. Afterwards, for the experience 
of the living beings, (is born) the desire of Ma- 
he^vara to create. Then the a d f i s h t a resumes 
its functions in all Atm&s. By the support of 
this a d f i s h t a and the union of Atm& and atoms, 
an action is produced in the ultimate atoms of Air. 
They become mutually conjoined into a molecule 
of two-atoms etc., in proper order. Thus is pro- 
duced a great wind which moves in the A k ft s a. 
Then therein similarly a great ocean of water is 
produced by the atoms of water and it flows in a 
great flood. Then in that very ocean by the ulti- 
mate atoms of earth, conjoining in the regular 
order into molecules etc., a great earth is produced 
and remains firm. Then in that very ocean by 
the atoms of fire is produced in the order of mole- 
cules etc. a great collection of rays of fire 
which remains burning. When these four 
great elements are thus born, by the mere will of 

( 260 ) 

the Supreme t b v a r a, a huge sphere is born from 
the atoms of fire supported by the atoms of Earth. 
Therein He creates B r a h m d, with four lotus- faces, 
the grandfather of all the universe as well as the 
worlds and commands Him to create all beings. 
Being commanded by Mahe$vara, Brahmd, 
possessed of wonderful knowledge, dispassion and 
power knows the fruits of the acts of all beings 
and creates his sons — the mind- born Prajd- 
pat is, Manu, the Devas, the Rishis and 
the P i 1 1 i s, the four castes from his face, araas^ 
thighs and feet, and all other beings high and 
low, each endowed with knowledge, enjoyment 
and length of life according to their Karma. 
He endows them with virtue, knowledge, dis- 
passion and power, each according to his de- 
sire." (Pra^asL Bkd. Bombay Edn. p. 18-19.) 

It was also pointed out in the last chapter 
that the NyAya Sfttras conceive of God as the 
cause of the distribution of the fruits of action, 
because such fruits are not always visible soon 
after the action. A definite refutation of all 
atheistic systems was undertaken by Udayaoa,. 
the great teacher of N y ^ y a, in his Ktisumdfl' 
jaliy probably written in the 12th century. 
This book is remarkable in that it is the only 
Sanskrit theological book solely and directly deal- 
ing with the question of the existence of God, 
like the numerous European t)ooks on the subject, 

( 26i ) 

by the Schoolmea and by Protestant theologians. 
It is divided into five chapters, each chapter being 
regarded a cluster of K u s u tn a flowers. In the 
first chapter Udayana establishes that there is an 
adrishta, an unseen cause of events of the 
world. Thus far Kanftda went but Udayana goes 
one step further, by blending the Ny&ya with the 
Vai$eshika position and pointing out that ad- 
rishta cannot operate as a cause, except by 
means of the concurrent energy of 1 9 v a r a {Kusu- 
mAftjali i. x8. 19). He, then, demolishes the athe- 
ism of the Mtmftmsa by pointing out that as 
right knowledge of the Veda requires an external 
source, since even the Veda is destroyed during 
p r a 1 a y a and it has to be repromulgated at crea- 
tion, t^vara is proved to be the source of 
traditional knowledge. (/*. ii. i). He then meets 
the arguments that are generally used to prove 
the non-existence of God from the six methods 
of testimony, perception (pratyaksha), infer- 
ence (a n u m & n a), analogy (u p a m ft n a), tra- 
dition ($abda), presumption (arthft patti), 
and non-perception (a n u p a 1 a b d h i). The 
general trend of the argument here is that as 
the various methods of proof themselves depend 
on Him for their validity they are paralysed by 
''looking into His face" and though they are 
unable to prove His existence, they are enough 
to disprove arguments against it {lb. III. 23.) 

( 262 ) 

Udayana then disproves the M!mftmsa argument 
that even if God existed, be could not be 
a source of right knowledge, for this conststs^ 
in knowing what was not known before. He 
rebuts this by defining right knowledge to be in- 
tuitive unerring perception. {lb. IV, 6. ) Finally 
Udayana offers eight positive arguments. '* From 
effects *, combination, sustenance, traditional arts, 
traditional knowledge, § r u t i, texts and number 
( underlying creation ), can be proved ah omniscient, 
eternal Being". (/A V. i.) Thus was the Nyflya- 
Vaiseshika once for all wedded to theism and it 
continues to 'affect modern Indian thought chiefly 
through the S a i v a and V a i s h n a v a sects. 

I B. PariijAma VAda 

The Sankhya, the Yoga, the Vedftnta, and the 
Agama schools conceive of the relation of cause 
and effect differently. They maintain the S a t - 
kftryavftda, the theory that the effect exists in* 
an unmanifested form in the cause. The following 
five arguments are given in the Sdhkhya KdrikA, 
ix, to uphold the theory that the effect exists an- 
tecedent to its manifestation, (i) A non-existent 
thing cannot be produced. Oil cannot be pressed 
out of sand. (2) T<j produce every effect we take 
an appropriate material. For making curd we 
take milk, not water. (3) Any effect does not 

* The argument from design. 

( ^63 ) 

result from any cause. (4) Ao agent doe3 only 
what it is able to do. (5) The effect has the same 
nature as the cause. Cloth has the same nature 
as the threads of which it is woven. The Sfthkhya 
thus reverses the Vaifeshika view. The latter holds 
that the thread coinheres in the cloth; therefore 
the cloth which did not exist before its production, 
has been originated by its cause, the thread. The 
former holds that the cloth inheres in the thread in 
an unmanifested form before its production and its 
production is therefore but the manifestation of 
a latent object. 

The Veddnia SAtras devote a section (a d h i- 
k a r a 9 a) to the S a t k ft r y a V & d a, the doctrine 
of the identity of cause and effect. *' That they (cause 
and effect) are not different (is to be inferred) 
from the words " Origin, etc." {lb II. 1. 14). The 
word * origin ' is found in Chh. Up. VI, i. 4., "As 
my dear, by one lump of clay all that is made of 
clay is known, the change being a name having 
its ^ origin* in speech." The next S&tras (15-16) 
give further reasons. "From perception (of the 
cause) when (the effect) exists"*. "From the 
later existing (in the original cause)"; in the sen- 
tence * This, my dear, in the beginning was but S a t', 
{Chh. Up. VI. ii. i. ), it is said that this evolved 
world was in the beginning merely the causal 

• Sankara interprets this s^tra tflhs :-^*' From the percep- 
tioD (of the effect) when (the c&uae) exists. 

( 264 ) 

entity, in other words, the effect was concealed in 
the cause. The Agama schools also accept the 
Satkdryavftda generally ; though they seldom 
discuss this fundamental question of philosophy. 

The Satkdryav&d a — ^the concept of the "per- 
sistence of the really existent", underlies all philo- 
sophy, ancient and modern. " Whatever really 
and fundamentally exists must, so far as bare 
existence is concerned, be independent of time. 
It may go through many changes, and thus have 
a history ; that is to say, must have definite titne- 
relations, so far as changes are concerned ; but 
it can hardly be thought of as either going out 
of existence, or as coming into existence, at any 
given period, though it may completely change its 
form and accidents ; every thing basal must have 
a past and a future of some kind or other, though 
any special concatenation or arrangement may have 

a date of origin and of destruction .The 

thing that is, both was and shall be " (Lodge. Life 
and Matter, pp. 101-3). 

Both the Satkftryavftda and the A s a t - 
kJiryavAda, though opposed to each other as 
theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive when 
used for explaining the cosmos. Explanation is a 
mental attempt to form a picture of what is outside 
the mind. An explanation must be self-consistent ; 
otherwise it fails ; Ipt a self-consistent explanation 
should not be imagined to include the whole of 

( 265 ) 

the facts of the cosmos we try to understand. 

It is noteworthy that this old world dispute 
between the Satkdryavftda and Asat- 
kftryavdda rages to-day in an acute form 
among the biologist)?. Are variations that underlie 
evolution due to innate causes, but manifestations 
of latent qualities? Or do they arise from some- 
thing like a chemical, combination of the germ 
and the sperm plasms? Do they evolve as res- 
ponse to environment ? Or are they due to spon- 
taneous impulsion? How far are the charac- 
teristics due to heredity ? What are the limits of 
educability ? ^ All these questions are being discus- 
sed on the basis of one assumption or the other. 

From the Satkftryav^da it follows that 
the world material becomes gradually transmuted 
into various forms to produce the succession of 
phenomena that forms the evolution of the world. 
This theory is called the Parinftmavftda, the 
theory of evolution or transmutation, for the noume- 
non of the object is Parin^ma Up&ddnam, 
material that changes form and not A r a m b h a 
Up&d&nam, originating material. 

I. SAnkhya. 

The material that according to the Safikhya 
(and the Yoga) undergoes transformation to produce 
the world is homogeneous Pradhftna or MAI a- 
prakriti. The impulse that sets Fradhftna 

( ^66 ) 

in motion cannot be a supreme Person ; *' becaase 
an intelligent person engages in actions either for 
' his own gain or on account of benevolence ; these 
(motives) cannot apply to the creation of the world 
which therefore cannot be due to an intelligent 
person. God, who can have no desires unfulfilled^ 
can desire to gain nothing from the creation of the 
world. Nor can his engaging himself in creation 
be due to- benevolence ; for, before creation, 
jtvas have no sense*oi^ns, bodies, objects (and 
hence cannot experience pain) ; in the absence of 
pain, how can there be a benevolent desire to 
remove it ? If ( we say that ) benevolence rises on 
observing pain after creation, (we commit) the fault 
of arguing in a circle, (inferring) creation from 
benevolence and benevolence from creation." 
(VJichaspati Misra, Tattva, Kaumudi^ 255). 
Therefore the impulse to creation is a blind,^ 
unintelligent impulse. '* As the unconcious milk 
flows ( of itself from the cow) for the nourishment 
of the calf, so Pradh&na begins to evolve for the 
release of Purusha ( S&h. Kdr. Ivi ) . The mere 
contiguity of the cow and the calf is enough to set 
the milk flowing from the cow : so the mere conti- 
guity of Purusha and P r a k ^ i t i causes a 
movement in the latter. ' Then there results '' a 
union of both, like that of a lame man ( mounted 
on the back of) a blind man. Hence starts 
creation." {lb. xxi.) . Purusha is lame, having 

( 267 ) 

no powers of action : Pradh&na is blind as it 
does not possess the illumination of consciousness. 
When they are united, ^ thence, on account of that 
union, the unconscious seems to be characterized 
by consciousness; though the guQas act, the 
inactive (P u r u s h a) becomes as if he were 
an actor." (/*. xx.) . The first result of the union 
Is the disturbance of the inert condition in which 
the three g.u^as subsist during Pralaya when 
matter is avyakta, uamanifest They blend 
with each other in varying proportions and thus the 
course of evolution (Safichar a) is started. 
This evolution runs in three parallel lines — the 
cosmic, the individual and the objective or the 
adhidaivata, the adhydtma and adhibhflta* 
The first product (vikdra) ofPradhAna 
from its union with Purusha is Buddhi, 
cosmic or individual. It is the first result of the 
reflection of the intelligence of the P u r u s h a on 
unintelligent F r a d h & n a, of the first cancellation 
of the contrast and distinction between pure 
subjectivity and pure objectivity. It is the certi- 
tude (adhyavas^ya) caused by the identifica- 
tion of the subject with the object which underlies 
all mental processes. " In cognition in a single 
act the contrast is virtually superseded as re- 
gards both the one-sidedness of subjectivity 
and the one-sidedness of objectivity. At first, 
however, the supersession of the contrast is 

( 268 ) 

but implicit. The process as such is in conse- 
quence immediately infected with the finitude 
of this sphere, and splits into the two-fold move- 
ment of the instinct of reason, presented as two 
different movements. On the one hand it super- 
sedes the one-sidedness of the Idea's subjectivity 
by receiving the existing world into itself, into 
subjective conception and thought, and with this 
objectivity which is thus taken to be real and true for 
its content it fills up the abstract certitude of itself. 
On the other hand, it supersedes the onesidedness 
of the objective world, which is now, on the contrary, 
estimated as only a mere semblance, a collection of 
contingencies and shapes at bottom visionary, it 
modifies and informs that world by the inward na- 
ture of the subjective, which is here taken to be the 
genuine objective. The former is the instinct after 
truth, cognition properly so called : the theore- 
tical action of the idea. The latter is the instinct 
of the Good to fulfil the same, the practical activity 
of the idea or volition." {Logic of Hegel, Wall,, 
p. 363). B li d d h i, thus, is the root of the universe 
and cosmic Buddhi, Brahm4* is the world- 
creator. Krishna speaking in the Bhagavadgtta 
as the cosmic P u r u s h a says ** To me, M a h a t- 
B r a h m & is the Y o n i ; therein I set the germ ; 

m Brahma and other Gods are Purushas, jott like ordinary 
human beings. 

, ( 169 ) 

thence the birth of all beings, OBhflrata. Of 
the beings of all forms arising in all wombs, O 
Kaunteya, Brahmamahat is the Y o n i, 
I the father, giver of the seed " (XIV, 2-3). 

From B u d d h i is evolved, Ahamkftra, the 
organ of self-consciousness and (necessarily) of 
other-consciousness. After the first faint glim- 
mering of differentiated consciousness comes the 
stage when the individual identifies himself with 
the definite portion of space occupied by his 
body (gross or subtle) and says, ^ this is I ', * that 
is not- 1 '. Now Ahamk&ra is developed ; the 
relative consciousness which alone all of us are 
familiar with, becomes possible. This Ahamka- 
ra is a function of matter, for till the Purq- 
sha identifies himself with a portion o! matter 
and regards other portions of matter as outside 
himself, the cognitions of 1 and of Not- 1 cannot 
be experienced. This is true as much of the cosmic 
Gods as of the individual man and of the hosts of 
animals which stand below man in their evolution. 
Cosmic AbamkAra is Rudra. The highest 
development of self-consciousness in man is union 
with Rudra. Hence ^ahkar^chdrya makes the re- 
' frain of most of his Siva Stotras, "§ivoha m," 
I (I am § i V a), " S i V a hi k e V a 1 o h a m ", (I am pure 
Siva), "Prat yagat ma Si voha m ", (I am 
^ Siva, the ego of introspective meditation). 

From the Ahamkara develop the eleven or- 

» ( 270 ) 

gans in the Adhyfttma (individuaU aad the , 
corresponding deities in the Adhidaiva and 
also tbeAdhibhiita (objective universe). The 
T a i j a s a (bright) Ahamk^ra develops into 
the deities. The Sftttvicor VailchArika 
Ahamkflra acted on by Rajas produces 
the Manas, the five sense-organs, and the five 
action organs, making up the eleven organs. 
The T&masa Ahamkdra, dark egoism, 
becomes transformed into the five tanmfttras 
( lb, XXIV, XXV ). Thus is started the triple line of ^ 
evolution the whole scheme of which is given below 

in tabular form.' 

adhy&tma ; 






I. Buddhi 

Brahma ' 


2. Ahamk&ra 


Egoism • 

3. Manas 

Chand ra 


4. Ear 



5. Skin 



6. Eye 

A d 1 1 y a 


7. Tongue 

Varu n a 


8. Nose 



9. Voice 

A g n i 


10. Hands 



II. Feet 



12. Organ of Pftyi 

11 Mitra 


13. U past ha 


Ananda. * 

( 271 ) 

Of these the first three are organs of knowledge 
and action ; the five next are organs of knowledge ; 
tht five last are organs of action. These thirteen 
Karanas (instruments) with the five Prftnas, 
five Mahftbhfitas, Pradhftna, and Purusha 
make up the twenty five t a 1 1 v a s (principles) of the 
cosmos the enumeration of which gave the name of 
S a ii k h y a (counting) to this school. ^ 

The word tanmfttra means ' that merely ', 
the pure essence of a sensation conceived as a 
modification of subtle matter. The illuminated 
(S a 1 1 V a) aspect of it becomes the fundament of 
a sense organ ; the dark (t ft m a s a) aspect of it 
becomes the rudiment of the corresponding sense- • 
object — S Akshmabhfita. 

The conception that the organ of a sensation and 
the object that possesses and produces that sensation 
are modifications of the same material essence is in 
keeping with the idealism that underlies Hindu 
philosophy. Western science has led philosophy 
into an impasse by generalising the objective 
causes of sensations into vibrations of material 
particles which philosophy by no stretch of imagina- 
tion can assimilate with anything like sensations. 
The S a fi k h y a regards the t a n m A t r a s, i. e., 
pure sound etc. to exist inside the perceiving sense- 
organ and in the world as well. To form a sense- 
organ it is acted on by s a 1 1 v a, it takes an illumi- 
nated form ; to form a sfikshmabhflta, subtle, 

( V2 ) 

(ultimate) element, it takes a tftmasa, daric^ 
resisting form ; and when there is a contact between 
these two forms, the sense organ and the sense 
object, sensation results by the illumination of the 
object by the sense organ. 

This concept that sensation is not a mode, a 
function, of intellect but an element, a constituent 
g of matter, perhaps looks paradoxical but is not sO" 
difficult to conceive as it looks. All admit that 
smell exists as infinitesimally small particles of 
matter shot off from odorous substances. Accord-^ 
ing to modern physical notions light is but a 
case of electricity and all matter is but electri- 
.city. Hence "atoms of li^ht" are infinitesimal- 
ly small particles of matter. Extending this to 
the other three sensations it is not impossible 
to conceive the five sensations to be the five 
( metaphysical ) elements of matter out of which 
objects and the sense-organs which perceive 
them are evolved. Physics attempts to form a 
picture of the universe by making or conceiving 
mechanical models of the action of the complex 
objects of the universe. Such models are extremely 
helpful in what is called scientific explanation. So 
far the formation of scientific hypotheses is valid. 
But when one step^ beyond and says that the plan 
of the universe is a copy of the many mechanical 
models conceived by the scientific man, it is but 
the intrusion of bad metaphysics into good science* 

( 273 ) 

The only valid metaphysical explaoation of the 
aniverse (3 the analysis of it into five element- 
ary sensations or t a n m ft t r a s as the Hindu calls 

These tanmfltrasareAvi^esha, (lit un< 
specific), perceptible only to the Gods whose bodies 
and sense organs are subtle. When they become 
Vi$esha, specific, differentiated, they give rise 
to subtle bodies, to the bodies that spring from 
a father and mother and the MahftbhAtas 
(empirical elements). (/^. xxxviii). The tan- 
m ft t r a s first evolve into empirical elements 
called Mahftbhfitas, or Sthaiabhfitas 
( gross elements ). From $abda tanmfttra is 
evolved Sthfila Akftsa; this mixed with 
Vftyutanmfttra becomes SthAla vftyu, 
and so on, each * gross element ' (mabftbh<^ta) 
containing the properties of all the elements above 
it and serving as the basis of their differentiation. 
This process of differentiation is called P an c h t • 
k a r a n a— quintuplication. These gross elements 
thus evolved constitute on the one hand the objects 
of the physical universe and on the other the physi- 
cal bodies ( with the physical sense organs ) which 
form the habitat of the incarnating Purushas. 
The creation of these bodies is called 1 i n g ft - 
khya Sarga, evolution of bodies, related to 
BhftvftkhyaSarga, evolution of characterise 
tics. ( lb. Hi ). These bodies are of fourteen kinds, 

( 274 ) 

of which eight are divine, i. e. subtle, oamely, (i) 
B r &h m a, that ofBrahmft;(2)Prajapatya, 
those of the creating hierarchies, of M a n u s , and of 
Rishis,(3) Saumya, those of the lunar 
beings ; (4) A i n d r a , those of Gods of the rank 
of Indra; (5) Gftndharva, those of the 
attendants on Indra and beings of that order ; (6) 
Rftkshasa; (7) Yiksha; (8) Pftifacha, 
those of three classes of demons. The ninth class of 
bodies is that of man; the other five are infra-human 
•—domestic animals, wild beasts, birds, creeping 
animals and immovables (vegetables and minerals). 
These three groups of bodies, divine, human, and 
infra-human are respectively characterised by S a t - 
tva. Rajas, and T a m a s . (/d. liii, liv ). 
Hence the Gods lead a life of indolent pleasure ; 
man, one of activity and the beings below man are 
enveloped by ignorance ; but all beings — high or 
low act not out of any imaginary principle of free 
will but all action in the manifested universe is the 
mechanical result of the play ofSattva, Rajas 
and T a m a s. These three kinds of bodies are also 
called tlrddhvasrotas, Arvflksrotas and 
Tiryags rotas, /. e. those whose vital energy 
flows upwards, downwards and horizontally. ( VisA, 
Put. V. ) 

This completes the evolutionary process and 
provides a large variety of bodies in which P u r u* 
sbas may reside and experience the pain arising 

( 275 ) 

from decay and death till, (on attaining M o k s b a) 
they are released from connection with the Lifiga- 

2. Yoga, 

The Yoga school accepts in toto the scheme 
of the past evolution of the Universe as taught 
by the Sftiikhyas; but its especial concern is 
more with the future release of the soul that is 
bound and the means of securing that desirable 
consummation. The Satkftryavftdais accept- 
ed in Yoga SAtraslv. 12. "The past and the future 
(forms of things) exist is their essence, the cause 
(of development of various) properties is due to 
change (of time, place etc.)". The substratum 
<:ontains in it all forms in latency and they mani- 
fest themselves in due time. " They are (either) 
visible or subtile and are of the nature (of modi- 
fications) of the G u n a s." {lb. iv. 14). These suble 
and visible forms of objects start their course of 
evolution on account on the contiguity of the 
seer and for his sake. "Though variegated by 
innumerable impressions (mental deposits of souls 
associated with the objects) they exist for another 
(/. e, the seer) because they operate on account of 
association (with him)." {/b. iv. 23), 

The stages of evolution are four. " The stages 
(of the evolution) of the G u n a s are the specific, 

( V^ ) 

(vises ha), non-specific (a vises ha) the li hg a- 
m a t r a and the a 1 i fi g a. {lb. ii. 19). The " spe- 
cific ' (vi9esha)or complex comprises the ob- 
jects of the world. The ' non-specific ' are the 
simple pure sensations (tanm&tra) of which 
til objects are compounded and the Ahamkftra 
— the foundation of the cognition of I and not- 1. 
The lihgam^tra, the mere characteristic, the 
touch of matter that colours the pure consciousness 
of the F u r u s h a and characterizes him as a 
bound soul, is Buddhi. The a ling a is the 
characterless, homogeneous Pradh&na. 

After all objects are evolved they continue 
in a state of constant flux, for flux is life. This 
flux is of three kinds, Dharma, Lakshana 
and A vast ha. {lb. iii. 13). This triple flux af- 
fects objects and the organs of perception and the 
action by means of which we contact them. {lb,) 
Dharma is change of characteristic. Thus when 
a pot is made of a lump of clay, the (material) 
clay gives up the characteristics of a lump and 
takes on the characteristics of a pot. This is the 
flux of D h a r m a, aflecting the D h a r m 1 (ma- 
terial), clay. This flux— change of characteristic- 
consists of two moments, (i) the rise of the new 
characteristic (of the pot), (2) the destruction of 
the old characteristic (of the lump). Dharma 
is thus the flux of form while the D b a r m i, 
material, is permanent ; the various characteristics, 

( «77 ) 

the outgoing and the incoming ones are both 

•existent, only when the former is held in check 

(nirodha) the latter manifests itself. Thus 

when the lumpiness (piridatva) of clay is 

held in check, its poUhood (ghatatva) is in 

manifestation (vyutthftna). Dharma itself, 

is subject to a triple flux, called L a k.s h a n a,, the 

flux of time. The form of a pot is a Dharma 

of clay. This form has three states with reference 

to time — future, present and past. So long as the 

pot is not made, but is only as it were immanent in 

the clay, it is prospective pot-hood (anftgata 

ghatatvam). This quality of capability of 

becoming a pot is held in check (nirodha) 

and present pot-hood (vartam^na ghafat* 

yam) comes into manifestation (vyutthftna) 

when a pot takes shape. Similary a statue exists 

in latency in marble before the sculptor carves 

it. Carving is the act of keeping the latency 

under control so that the actual statue may 

manifest itself. When, finally, the pot is broken, its 

persent pot'hood is held in check and its state as a 

past (a tit a) pot is manifested. Thus goes on 

this procession of each form of each object from 

a prospective to a present and on to a past state 

(Lakshana), each presenting two moments, 

Nirodha and VyutthAna, one moment 

merging and another manifesting itself. The 

flux of an object with regard to time is thus 

( V8 ) 

analysed, so that the fundamental idea of S a t- 
kftryavAda, that nothing is created, nothing 
destroyed, may be consistently followed in expla- 
nation of the world-flux. While the triple fiux of 
Laksha^a takes place, D h a r m a is fixed. 
The idea ofLakshanaasa procession of tem- 
poral states of a form is indicated by each state, 
being called an A d h v & (way). Each a d h v ft 
contains a N i r o d h a and aVyutthftna, one 
state checked and another manifested. N i r o d h a 
and Vyutthftna are always acting. If the for- 
ager is strong and the latter is weak, a certain state 
is kept under control ; when the latter is strong and 
the former is weak, manifestation of a state 
results. Thus Nirodha and Vyutthftna, 
each has two phases ; in Nirodha, Niro- 
dha is strong and Vyutthftna is weak ; 
in Vyutthftna, Vyutthftnais strong and 
Nirodha is weak. Each of these phases 
is called an Avasthft. Thus D h a r m a is the 
flux (Paririiama)ofDharmt, Laksha^a is 
the flux of D b a r m a and A v a s t h A is the flux 
of Laksha^a. This intricate analysis of the 
flux of objects taken from Vy&sa's Commentaries^ 
on Yoga S^Attas III. 13, reminds us of the barren 
hair-splitting of the Nylya-Vaiseshika School; 
its only virtue, if it is virtue at all, being a con- 
sistent carrying out of the doctrine of Ex nihila 
nihil fit. C h i 1 1 a V T i 1 1 i, the flux of psychoses, is 

( «79 ) 

similarly analysed, bnt this will be discussed 

3. VedAnta. 

So early as in the age when the J^ i k s were 
composed, was the momentous question raised, 
'' what was the wood, what was the tree, out of 
which they fashioned the heaven and the earth ? 
Inquire mentally, ye sages, what was that on which 
he took his stand when establishing the worlds ? " 
{Rigveda, X. 81. 4). The question was answered 
in the Tcntttriya Btdhma^a, II. viii. 9. 6., 
''Brahma was the wood, Brahma the tree 
from which they shaped the heaven and the earth. 
Ye sages, I tell you, he stood on B r a h m a support* 
ing the worlds.'* This process of world-shaping 
is called p a r i 9 ft m a, the march of forms on an 
unchanging material substratum, in Ved-SAt. I. iv. 
'' (B r a h m a is the materical cause of the universe) 
as it is said He meditated (' may I become many, 
may I grow forth '}, as both (creation and dissolu- 
tion) are referred in the Veda directly (to Him, 
as in Taii, BrdA, II. viii. 9. 6. above quoted), as 
(it is said) He Himself made Himself {Taii. Up. 
1 L 7.), by p a r t Q A m a " ( V$i. SAt. I. iv. 24-27). 

The questiqp, then, rises, how can Brahma, 
who is conscious Being evolve into the forms of 
unconscious ( j a ^ a) material objects ? This diffi- 

( 280 ) 

colty does not occur in the S ft n k h y a p t r i n i- 
ma V ft d a wherein unconscious material objects 
evolve out of an unconscious causal proto-matter. 
The Sftiikhya therefore objects to the Vedftnta 
appropriating his theory "on account of the 
difference of that {viz. the world, from Brahma) " 
{Ved.Silt II. i. 4) The Vedftnta Stitras meet 
this objection tersely, " But it is seen" (/A II. i. 6). 
that the world presents many instances of things of 
different nature related as cause and effect, e. g. 
hairs and nails grow out of man, scorpions out of 
cow dung, worms out of honey. To this crude 
way of meeting this difficulty, the'^Achftryas 
add each a clever supplementary argument derived 
from their sectarian teachings. $ahkara argues 
that evolution of the objects that constitute the - 
world is illusory (vivarta pari^Ama) and 
Brahma is but the seeming material (vivarta 
u p ft d ft n a m),^ " Brahma becomes the subs- 
tratum of all phenomenal changes like evolution etc., 
superimposed on him by A v i d y ft (ignorance) ; 
in His real nature he remains beyond all phenome- 
nal changes and untransformed " {Comm. on Ved. 
S^i. //. i. 27). Rftmftnuja attributes to Brahma 
even in his causal state (K ftrai^ft vasthft), a 
subtle body made up of individual souls and the 
elements of matter that have become absorbed 
in Him. During the Kftryftvastbft, when the 
• H«noctheftdTait»iBGaU«dthe Tivarta Tftda. 

( i8i ) 

world is m manifestatioa, it is this body of His 
that evolves, He Himself being the anchangeable, 
a vyakta. 

Thus all schools interpose between Brahma 
that is Pure Conscious Being and the evolved 
world, a state of proto-matter which is held to be 
real or illusory According as consistency with 
their fundamental metaphysical position requires. 
The hiatus between Brahma and this proto- 
matter is the weak point of all Vedftnta theories. 
This original state of proto-matter, M il 1 a p r a - 
k IT i t i as the Sftiikhyas call it, is called A sa t in the 
Vedas. "Asat was this at first, from it sprang 
Sat {Taii. Up. II 7. i ; Chh. Up. Ill 19. i.) "Sat 
is founded upon A sat. Beings (bhfitas) are 
founded upon Sat." {Athar. Ved. XVII i. 19). 
**Frdm A sat, Manas was created. Manas 
created Prajft patL P ra j fl p a ti created beings." 
{Taii. Brdh II. ii. 9. 10). ** A s a t was this .at first. 
They say, ^ what is this A s a t ? The 1^ i s h i s say 
that ' At first A s a t existed*." {Sat Brdh VI. i. 1. 1,) 
By A s a t, therefore, is meant a state when distinct 
objects were not evolved, a state of homogeneity, * 

* *' d a t denotes the exifltence of things in the manifold 
forms of the external world, the Dastj/n of Hegel, the 
Naiura Natwata ot Spinoza and A sat is the opposite of 
this^ or the formless Prakrit!. . . . Sat corresponds in 
each separate form to the * being-this' of Hegel . . • * fiy 
^irtae of its predicate of merely being-this, every something 
18 a finite ' and therefore it is an ifect^ becanse otherwise we 

( 2S2 ) 

the chaos of the Greeks. This state is also called 
T a m a s, to be distinguished from T a m a s, one 
of the three guQas. " T a m a s existed, enveloped by 
T a m a s, in the beginning " ( Rig- Veda X. 129. 3). 
*' In the beginning T a m a s alone was this/' 
{Matt. Up. V. 2). By T a m a s, darkness, was sym- 
bolized a state when nothing objective is manifest- 
ed. Another and frequently used symbol of the 
unmanifested state of matter, is * water '. *^ All this 
was undifferentiated water." {Rig-Veda^ X. 129. 3.) 
" At first all this was wat^r, (nothing) but water." 
{Sat Brdh. XI. i. 6. i. 9. Tait. Sam. VII. i. 5. i., 
Tait Brdh. I. i. 3. 5., Tait. Atan. I. 2 3. i.) 

Sfishti, creation, started with an agitation 
of this primeval matter. S r i s h t i is more pro- 
perly emission, the emission of energy into the 
waters, which started the work of evolution. This 
first starting of creative activity is described in 
the earlier writings as a * desire *. *^Desire (K 4 m a) 

coald only conceive it as absolute being and therefore on- 
limited . . • Dr. Huir, however, refers to the commenta- 
tors on the Rigveda who explain A s a t as meaning ^ an an- 
developed state ', and adds that if we accept this statement 
there will be no contradiction. A s a t does not mean simply 
an andeveloped state, but the state of pure or formless exis- 
tence of the primal substance from which all forms hate 
sprung. It is clear, however, that if As at means an an- 
developed state, then Sat must mean, not the essence of 
anything, but a developed state "• Davies. Hindu Phil, pp.- 
136-8. But Davies forgets that sometimes 8 a t m used for the 
essence, the noumenal entity as in Chh. Up. VI. it. 1. 2. 

( 283 ) 

first arose in it, this was the seed of mind, th^it 
which was first Wise men, by mental introspection, 
have found this bridge between A s a t and Sat". 
{Rig'Veda x. 129. 4,) "Being Asat, it desired 
• may I become Sat*" (TaiV. BrAK II ii. 9. i.) In 
the theistic A g a m a schools, this desire is furnish- 
ed with a motive, that of leading individual souls to 
salvation (Moksha); but this idea is not found 
in the early literature. On the contrary, it is said 
that creation is " not on account of any (specialy 
purpose but is a mere sport (lli&), such as we 
see in ordinary life (when people play)" {Ved. SAt. 
II. i. 32. 33). The desire that underlies the evo* 
lution of ihe world, the will to manifest is not due 
to the motive to gain something thereby ; nor is it 
due to constraint, but spontaneous, self-initiated 
out-flow of energy. 

"From Asat came Sat". "From Asat 
was created Manas". These words S a t, M a- 
n a s, indicate the earliest beginnings of evolution,. 
the stage when existence could be predicated, 
when homogeneous proto-matter was streaked with 
the first marks of differentiation. "It (Sat) de- 
veloped, it became an egg" {Chk, Up. III. xix. i.) 
"Manas created Fraj&pati". This repre* 
sents the next stage, P r a j ft p a t i, on the one 
hand and the world-egg on the other. The 
former was the A d i P u r u s h a, the first male, 
the creator with some elements of personality in 

( 284 ) 

bim ; the latter was the first discrete form of the 
universe ; These are the two lines of evolution. * 
The work of P r a j A p a t i is described variously 
in various cosmogonic hymns. Most frequent- 
ly it is described as T a p a s (meditation accooa- 
panied by austerity). " He desired, ' may I become 
many, may I produce children.' He performed 
t a p a s ; after he performed tapas, he emitted all 
this; and whatever there is. Having emitted it, 
he entered into it" (Taif. Up. II. 6.) "Praj4pati 
desired, • may I produce children.' He performed 
t a p a s ; he became pregnant. He became yellow- 
brown. Hence a pregnant woman becomes yel- 
low-brown. Being pregnant with a foetus, he 
became exhausted. Being exhausted, be became 
black-brown. Hence an exhausted person be- 
comes black-brown" (Tait. Brdk, II. iii. 8. r.) 
PrajSipati's work is also conceived as a sexual 
act. " The Atmd, in the form of a Purusha, was 
this at first. Looking around, he saw (there was) 
none but himself. . . He desired a second. He 
was as much as a man and woman locked in 
embrace. He made himself fall asunder in two 
parts. Thus arose man and wife. He cohabited 
with her. Thence men were born." (Sai. BrdA, 
XIV. iv. 2. I.) Creation is also described as due 
to uttering mantras. "With ^Bhflh,' Prajapati 

♦ la •ome legends Prajapati came out of the golden egg, 
9at. Brdh. XI. i. 6. 2. 

( 285 ) 

generated this ; with ' Bhuvah ', the intermediate 
region; with 'Svah/ the sky". (/*. VI. i. 4. 11). 
It is also conceived as a sacrifice. The ritual of 
the Vedic sacrifice was supposed to be an earthly 
copy of this sacrifice of creation. Vishnu is gene- 
rally referred to as the sacrificial victim. Lastly, 
creation is sometimes described as an act of self- 
sacrifice. ** Brahma, the selfexistant was in con- 
templation. He thought, ' there is no infinity in 
this contemplation. I shall sacrifice myself in 
beings and beings in myself.' Then sacrificing 
Himself in all beings and all beings in Himself, 
he acquired superiority, self-ef!ulgence and lord- 
ship." {fat. Brdh. XIII. vii. i. 20.) 

The Golden Egg of the universe developed in 
"the period of a year. It burst in two. The 
two halves^ became (one) golden and (the other) 
silver. The silver ( half) is this earth, the golden 
(half ) the sky ; the chorion, mountains, the am- 
nion, cloud and mist ; the bloodvessels, rivers and 
the fluid, the ocean." ( Chh. Up. III. 19. 1-2.) 

The order in which the various beings were 
created also varies in different accounts. The 
Taittirtya Brdhma^a makes it out to be Asuras, 
Fathers (Pitris), men, Devas {lb. II. iii. 8. i.). The 
elements were created in the order in which the 
Sftdkhya makes them evolve. '^ From that Atmft 
sprang Akftsa, from Akft§a air, from air fire, from 
fise water, from water earth, from earth herbs, from 

( 266 ) 

iierbt food, from food retas (seed,) from retas m eo/^ 
{Tail. Up. II. I,}. By 'man 'here we must here 
understand his gross body, for in the previous series 
he appears between the Fathers and the Devas. 
All this work of evolution is done by the Supreme 
Brahma. '' The making of names and forms (be- 
longs) to Him who renders (the elements) tripar- 
tita, according to the teaching of the $ruti " {ytd. 
Siii, II. iv. 2o). Making the elements 'tripartite' 
refers to ChhAndogya Vp, vi-2, where (ej as 
A pas and annam (fire, water and food or 
earth, as usually interpreted) are alone mentioned )» 
from such crude speculations, the Sftfikhya el- 
aborated its well-thought and finished analysis 
of the Universe. When this was done, though 
the Vedftnta was directly opposed to the fund- 
amental S&nkhya teaching and the author of 
the Brahma Sfitras devpted two sections of the 
work to refute the S&fikhya heresy, by appeal- 
ing both to reason and revelation, it accepted 
the Sftfikhya scheme of transmutation ; its promiil- . 
gator Kapila has become an incarnation of 
Vishnu and his philosophy ^a revelation as 
unassailable as the self-promulgated Veda. 

The VedAnta has elaborated the Vedic sdheme 
of three regions, the earth, the sky, and the inter- 
mediate region (antariksha) into three cosmic 
spheres, the Vedftnta scheme being perhaps a rival 
of the Vaishnava scheme. The MinMkpa 

( 287 ) 

Upanishqd is the first to propound the scheme: 
'* B r a h m a that is this Atma is four-footed The 
first feot isVaifvAnara, seated Jn the waking 
consciousness; sensing external objects, with seven 
limbs * and nineteen doors *, experiencer of the 
gross (t compounded) world. The second foot is 
T a i j a s a, seated in the dreaming consciousness, 
sensing internal objects, with seven limbs * and 
nineteen doors •, experiencer of the f elementary 
(subtle) world. Deep sleep (susbuptam) when 
tSit sleeper desires nothing whatsoever, dreams not 
at all ; becoming one with the state of deep sleep 
yd mass of (undifferentiated) consciousness, filled 
with bliss, the enjoyer of bliss, he is Prftjiia. 
the third foot This is the Lord of all, this the 
omniscient, this the indweller of all, this the 
cause of the birth and death of all beings. Not 

^ ' The orthodox explanation of the seven limbs is that 
they are i\k% Heaven, the sun, wind, A k &§a, water, earth and 
fire conceived as vai^vftnara's head, eye, breath, heart, 
bladder, feet and mouth. The nineteen doors are the ten 
organs of sense and action, five pr&nas and the four parts of 
the internal orgun manae, buddhi, chittaand aham- 
k ir am. This can scarcely be the idea of the author of the 
Upanishad, for the division of the internal organ into four 
parts belongs to' the age of Sankara and not earlier. Anquetil's 
auggestion that they are the five elements, the ten organs, 
three gunas and mind is a better guess, but not sufficiently 

t cf . Pailchikrita and apafiohikrita, ayi^e- 
• ba and vi§eBh a, of the SAakhya, ▼• p. 273. 

( 288 ) 

sensing the internal, not sensing the external, not 
sensing both, no mass of sentiency, not conscious, 
not-unconscious, unseen, unusable, untouchable, 
indefinable, inconceivable, indescribable, the essence 
of the intuition of the one Atmd, where the world 
is not, the unchnaging, the blissful, the one without 
second, that, which is to be known, is the Atoift, 
the fourth (foot)." {Mdnd. Up. 2.7). 

Nrisimha Tdpini Upanishad, II. i, is a com- 
mentary on the MdnMkya Upanishad and 
presents a systematic parallelism between the 
three states of the individual consciousness and of 
the cosmic consciousness as follows : — 

States Individual Cosmic 

Waking. Vi§va. Vai$vanara. 

Dream. Taijasa. H irany agarbb a. 

Sleep. Pr4jfia. l?vara. 

The worlds and bodies corresponding to these 
three states of consciousness are called SthAla 
Sakshma and KArana, gross, subtle and 
causal (the fourth, Turlya, being the Absolute). 
The three worlds are also called VirAt, Svarftt 
and S a m r a t. 

C 289 ) 


The S4fekhya divided the objective universe into 
twenty-four tattvas/ which with the P u r u s h a 
make up the twenty-five principles that constitute 
the macrocosm and the microcosm. The S a i v a s 
analyse the universe into thirty-six tattvas. 
Between £ r ak )r i t i and B u d d h i they interpolate 
Guna as a tattva separate from either. Thus 
there are twenty-five tattvas below P u r u s b a, who 
is the twenty-sixth. Above him there are five, call- 
ed Fancha kafichuka, the five-fold envelope, 
viz., N i y a t i, K 4 1 a, R & g a, V i d y ft, and K a 1 d. 
Above K a 1 ft, there areMftyft, SuddhaVidyft, 
l$vara, Sadftsiva and $iva tattvas. 

These thirty-six tattvas are divided into; 
three classes* the highest, Sivtattva, being a, 
class by itself, the next three, Sadft9iva.,tsvara 
and Suddhavidyft being the Vidyfttattval 
and the thirty-two beginning from Mftyft andl 
ending with the earth being the Atmfttattva. ) 

The first oftheAtmfttattvas is Mftyft, not 

^Tattva, lit, tbat-ness has varioas connotations. Some- 
times it means reality, as opposed to phenomenality, a real, 
ultimate factor of the cosmos. But in the Sinkbya and 
Saiva Sdstrasit more often means a definite stage of evo^a- 
tion, a stage having individual characteristics of its own. 
The tattva trayam of the Vaish^avas are, again, three 
real, and ultimate factors of the cosmos and not stages of 
the evolution of Prakriti. 



< . 

the $uddha Mftyft mentioned in p. 1 58. M ft y ft 
is the root of the universe. It is " eternal, one, 
pervading, of the form of objects, the substratum 
in which the potential results of actions (Karma) 
inhere, impure and common to all Sak alas. It 
is, during manifestation, the cause of the subtle and 
gross bodies etc. of the Pralayftkalas, which 
end with p r a 1 a y a. As the trunk, the leaf, the 
fruit, etc., latent in the seed grow (therefrom, so the 
universe) from kalft tokshiti (earth) (develope 
from M Ay ft)." iPausA.A£^.ill2'4). "It first evolves 
into the subtle tattvas(Kalft etc.), by manifest- 
ing the power of sight (dfik^akti, power of 
perception) in the fttmft ; then it evolves into the 
gross worlds and bodies. The subtle K a 1 ft etc. 
.first bind the man (anu); then the gross." 
( /*. ill. 61.62 ). Ka 1 4 is the first t a 1 1 v a evolved 
from M ft y ft. " K a I ft overcomes in ail ways the 
malas (impurities) that obstruct the manifes- 
tation ofchaitanya and thus helps chaitanya 
to manifest. Chaitanya is of the form of cogni- 
tion and activity and is the auxiliary of the Atmft; 
(when) it is obstructed, Kalft manifests it Kalft 
does not manifest the Atmft in its entirety, but 
makes the chaitanya shine partially, as Kalft works 
in accordance with Karma." (Id. v. 2-5). Vidyfl, 
the next t a 1 1 v a , evolves from Kalft; without 
it the Atmft cannot derive experience of pleasure 
and pain. *'That instrument with which the 

( 291 ) 

Atmi who has become an actor sees the oprations 
of Buddhiis called v id y& in the $aiva S&s- 
tras." {n. V. 9. ) V i d y a is different from C h i t - 
S a k t i ; for the latter shines only when B u d d h / 
and other material modifications are destroyed lr;c<v^* 
Chj_tjLJLajc ^i leads to pure knpwjedge, wherea^ 
VJd^a.jcauses the knowledge that is bondage\ 
VidyA is thus a reflection of the light of con-^ 
sctousness (prakftsa) as kaldi is a reflec- 1 
tion of power^ !?^?£?5dence (s v a c h c h h a n d a), J 
'' R A g a inclines to (worldly) experience one whcr\ 
is attached to it ; for the one without desire has ii7 'ci.*Y*^ 
no enjoyment (of pain and pleasure) ; nor is there \ <^ 
satisfaction for one who is subject to enjoyment 
of impure (bliss)." (/*. v. 2223). RAga is a 
reflection of chit ^akti or ichchA-fakti« 
^' R A g a is of two kinds, of the form of images 1 
and of the form of latent (desire) ; of these the 1 
former (attaches men) to objects." {lb. v. 37).^ • 
After R ft ga comes Kftla, time, which makes 
manifest^ the aforesaid t a 1 1 v a s as«past, present ! l/^-^ . 
and future. " Without (the flux of) time, nothing* i-^ 
can be born, nothing die ; hence time is a cause 
(of objects) as the wheel is (a cause) of a pot " (/^. | 
V. 50). Time is not eternal ; for eternity is being.' 
outside time {lb. v. 66]. j/N i y a t i is the force") . . , 
that attracts a man to the results of his Karma, j r ^' 
whether he desires them or not. It also deter- i 

^aioes what bodies, organs, etc., each man is to get i 


( 292 ) 

K a r m a by itself has ao . power to afflict man. 

$ i V a's power has to intervene, in the form of 

N i y a t i (Jb.v. 83-88]^; The P u r u s h a clothes 

/himself with these ' five envelopes' developed from^ 

^ Iv^^i MftyA being set thereto by Siva. The name 

. ,A] P u r u s h a applies 'only, to the s a k a 1 a s ; they 

>: i are enveloped by ignorance (a vi d y ft) which 

incomes from Prakrit ij the Vijfianftkalas 

and Pralayakevalasare not called Purushas. 

(7^. vi. 2-4). P r a k ]: i t i is also the stuff of which 

the worlds which the P u r u s h a is to experience^ 

are made. It is the first of the gross developments 

of MSy^, Kalft and the other four (pa fie ha- 

\ kanchuka) being subtle ones. It is also called 

A V y a k t a (Jb. vi. 18). In it the g u n a s are in 

\ equilibrium {lb, vi. 21). From P r a k |:i t i evolve- 

the G una s; from the Gu9 as, Buddhi. The 

rest of this part of evolution is substantially the 

* same as that taught in the Sfthkhya school. 

^ ^ "^ The Vidyitattvas (to be distinguished 

.^^ , ^ from th"e t a f t v a called V i d y i, the thirtieth in 

the series) are three modifications of the jhi^est 

tattva, that called Siva. This §i v at at t va 

' Is n i s h k a 1 a, undifferentiated, where $ u d d h a- 

: m ft y a, with all its activity ended, becomes absorb- 

. ed (reaches 1 a y a) ; from it radiate the powers of 

\.' ' consciousness and action; it is indestructible, 

omnipresent. Eternal, unchanging, omniscient (lit. 

with face in all directions). {Paush-Ag. i. 18-20). 

( 293 ) >^r^^ 

Sadft$iva is the next tattva, the first of 
the three V i d y ft t a 1 1 v a s. " When § u d d h a-"^ , 

m a y a, the § a k 1 1 of § i v a begins her life of -^o^^'m 
activity, then Siva passes to the state of B h o g a 
Siva (lit, § i V a that experiences, the first stage I 
of differentiation); he is Sadft^iva, also called | 
Sadakhya, not really separate from S i v a.^ 
When §iiddhamayais actually active, B h o g a*^ 'tC 
Siva passes on to the stage ofAdhikftraSiva | 
(lit., Siva that superintends or rules) ; he is then \ 
t 8 V a r a, not really separate from S a d ft § i v a^ 
(li. i. 25-26). The body of five mantras referred 
to in the previous chapter belongs to [S a d ft $ i v a, 
for the highest, undifferentiated Sivatattva, 
can scarcely be said to have a body, even one com- 
posed of m a n t r a s. Tu ' 

B i n d u, otherwise Suddha Mftyd, also -. / ' 
S i V a 8 a k t i, the active counterpart of these ^ 
three highest tattvasis not counted as a separate .''''"*'' 
t a 1 1 va ; so that the Siktaftgamas give her v '.' " ' 
prominence and throw the ^ivas in the back- / ' i'* 
ground. " The 1 a y a and other (two) different 
states of $ i V a already described have B i n d u 
as their substratum ; she is the same as K u 9 d a- 
lint (the globular)." She it is that binds A n- 
a n t a and the rest to the bondage of their (respec- 
tive) activities and releases them therefrom. More- 
over at the time of creation the world beginnings 
with that of mantras proceed from her and 

( 294 ) 

become absorbed in her." {Ih. ii. 1-4). ** Her activit3r 
in manifesting tattvas determines the four 
(highest tattvas), Sivatattv a, Sftd&khya 
tattva, tsvara tattva, and (Suddba) 
Vidy4 tattva." {lb. ii. 32-33). "§uddha 
V i d y & is the cause of true knowledge " (/5. ii. 40). 

Besides this h'ne of evolution of the various 
' principles ' of the Universe, theSaivaAgamas 
also describe the evolution of hosts of beings, sue* 
ceeding the rise of M ft y ft. " Then at first he 
creates eight qualified K e v a 1 a souls (a n u s), ac- 
companied by Vftmft and other Saktis and 
> ' ' surrounded by the 7 crores of m a n t r a s." {Mrig^ 

Ag. iii. I). They are here called k e v a I a because 
they belong to the class already described as 
Vijnftna kevala^ those that have AQava 
mala sticking on to them but are rid of Karma 
and M ft y ft. They are A n a n t a, S A k h s h m a, 
Sivottama, Ekanetra, Ekarudra, and 
S i k h a n d I, lords of lords (Rftjarftjas). 
'* Then the Lord being manifested A n a n t a and 
the rest, creates from Mftyft tattva (the knot), 
the iiS (l^varas) whose bodies begin from 
K a 1 ft." {lb. iii. 9). These evidently, are subject 
to two m a 1 a s. 

'* Afterwards the Lord enters into those rulers of 
the worlds (bhuvanesvaras) who are tainted 
(with the three malas) from whom all this 

( 295 ) . 
(universe has arisen) and whose work depends upon 

(their) k a rm a." (ft. iii. lo). They are B r a h m a, 

Vishnu, Rudr'a, (the destroyer of a minor 

universe, to be distinguished from the great Lord), 

and the rest, who thus are Sakalas. These 

beings inhabit various spheres, called Bhuvanas 

into the description of which it is profitless to 


The line of separation between the S a i v a 
and $ A k t a A g a m a s so far as mythology is 
concerned is generally faint ; but the more rigorous 
S ft k t a schools, while accepting the $ a i v a 
analysis of the t a 1 1 v a s substitute hierarchies of 
female divinities for the $ a i v a deities. Pari-/ 
9 a k 1 1, the Supreme Goddess is always surrounded i 
by hordes of followers, like the queen of the . 
amazons. One hierarchy is that oTBie'iffNTty fl s 
-^ahi T ripurasu ndart, Kftme^vart, 
B h a g a m ft 1 i n I, etc ; another consists of Man- 
trini, Dandini, Nakult and other Devts. 
Their names, functions and the Mantras which 
appeal to them form the chief subject matter 
of S ft k t a books. They are generally distin- 
guished astsvarts when pure Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas excluded, forms their essence, and as 
Y o g i n t s when they are tainted by Rajas and 
Tamas. No useful purpose will bb served by a --' 
more detailed study of these divine charmers. 

Vativasyd rahasya expounds the secret teach- 

( 296 ) 

ings with regard to the starting of the process of 
creation, quaint and interesting. "This is the 
order of creation. A man, desirous of begetting 
offspring, on account of the ad^ish^a (karma) 
of the son to be born, contemplates his own powers 
and himself enters, in the form of S u k 1 a, the 
wife that is the half of his body ; . . . then the 
wife in the form of $onita enters within the 
9 u k 1 a ; thence the b i n d u swells out, like the 
seed of the banyan and the udumbara; then 
in the order in which the sprout etc. generate, in 
process of time, children etc. are generated ; when 
the sun's rays enter a mirror opposite the sun, the 
sun's rays and rays from the mirror become mixed 
and start as a b i n d u of light and fall on a walK 
Similarly, on account of the A d ]: i s h t a (karma) 
of (all) beings, Brahma who is P r a k ft $ a, 
becomes desirous of creating the world which had 
been absorbed in himself, turns to see his S a k t i, 
enters her in the form of a b i n d u of light and 
becomes a bindu of ^ukla. Thence S a k 1 1, 
becomes s o 9 i t a and enters into it. The bindu 
that results from their commingling swells out. 
Then is produced a special substance called H ft r- 
d a k a 1 ft (heart-ray). That has to be learnt frono 
the lips of a Guru and cannot be written in 
books." (Id. ills. Com.) 

Lalitd Sahasrandma bhdshya quotes from a 
$ ft k t a work the following elaborate description 

( 297 ) 

of the stages of creation. First is (i) the g h a a t- 

fo h d t a stage, when karma absorbed in p r a- 

] a y a is not ripe for nianifestation and matter is a 

homogeneous mass. When the ripening is beginning 

it, is (2) V i c h i k i r s b a. M ^ y & becomes charged 

with ripened karma and Brahma becomes 

endowed with M ft y ft and is ready to create ; this 

is (3) Avyakta or Kftrana Bindu (the 

causal seed). From it starts (4) the K&rya 

Bindu (effected seed), who is P a r 4 V 4 k, C h i t. 

"Thence issues (5) N^da, Sftkshma Vak, 

c h i d a c h i t ; thence, B i j a. (gross) seed, s t h 0- 

1 a, A c h i t. Stages 3, 4, 5, 6 form the Avyakta 

I $ vara, Hiranyagarba and Vaisvanara 

of the Ved&nta (explained in section 3), as also 

their $ ft k t a analogues, viz , S ft n t ft, V ft m ft, 

Jyesthft, and Raudrl, otherwise, Ambikft, 

I c h c h h ft, Jrn ft n a, and K r i y ft. 

(5) Vaishnava Agamas. 

The Pddma Samhita describes the cosmic 
beings and spheres in the following terms ^ There 
is the eternal, incomparable. Light, eternally- 
satisfied, spotless, the all-form, the formless, 
beyond Tamas, without destruction. On account of 
(creative activity) comes out from this eternal 
Being, Vftsudeva, two-handed, single-clothed, 
like pure crystal, with the brilliance of thousands 
of lacs of crores of moons, fires and suns, seated in a 

( 29$ ) 

sphere of rays, with c b a k r a (discus) and other im- 
plements as his marks, with $r!vatsa (a curl of 
hair) and Kaustubha (a jewel) on his breast, 
shining with a garland ornamented with a crown,, 
a neeklace, armlets, bangles, etc., wearing a yellow 
cloth, graceful, the first spotless King. He is 
known as Vftsudeva; from ( His ) four-faced 
Being all created things (came). He is to be 
meditated on by Yogts always in the centre of the 
lotus of the heart. The wise (s i!i r i s) see him as 
the supreme goal of Vishnu. From V & s u d e- 
V a was born another VAsudeva, single-faced» 
four-armed, endowed with the discus and other 
implements. (He keeps) the discus for the protec- 
tion (of the world); the alMoving, again, has the 
lotus for the purpose of creation ; the (conch called) 
p ft fl c h a j a n y a for release (m u k t i), also the 
mace for destruction ; with the srtvatsa and 
kaustubha on his breast, ornamented with a 
garland ; black like the peacock's ' neck ; with a 
yellow cloth, born with him. This Lord V ft s u - 
d e V a is the author of creation, protection, destruc- 
tion, and release. For some cause or other he divided 
himself into two ; of these one was Vftsudeva, 
like a pure crystal, the second was Nftrayana,. 
of the colour of a blue cloud. From Vftsudeva 
(came) Samkarshana, from him (the latter) 
was born Pradyumna. From Pradyumna, 
was born Aniruddha. All these are four- 

( 299 ) 

armed. Vftsudeva is known to have the six 
gu^as, jn&na and the rest, in equal quantities; 
the forms (m A r t i s) to be serially described, 
(come) from possessing different quantities of the 
g u 9 a s. He who has excess of j fl ft n a is named 
Samkarshana; Pradyumna has an excess 
of b a 1 a ; on the excess of A i $ v a r y a, (comes) 
Aniruddha; from the four m u r t i s are born 
twency«tour m r t i s, as many lamps (are lighted) 
from one lamp". {PAdma Sam. ii-7-i2). 

The functions of these beings are described In 
the Lakshmttantfa. "Aniruddha creates this ; 
Pradyumna maintains what he creates ; the 
Samkarshana eats (destroys) what is thus 
created and maintained." {lb. iv. 19.) In variance 
with this Lakshmt describes the course of crea- 
tion in chap v. of the same book. '' I, desirous of 
creation, with a small drop (bindu) of mine, 
start the pure creation, of the full six g u 9 a s. 
Before my form is altered by the formation of 
that bindu, I am called Mahftlakshmt^ 
surrounded by the three g u n a s. When Rajas 
becomes predominant, I become the great P a r a- 
m e 9 V a r 1. My form filled with T a m a s is 
known as Mahft M&yft; aud my form of 
S a 1 1 V a is known as Mahft Vidyd. Myself 
and these two women by meditation created three 
pairs (of beings), in accordance with our nature. 
Know that my own mentally-produced beautiful 

( 300 ) 

pair, golden- wombed, lotus-eyed, beautiful, lotus- 
seated, is from a part of Pradyumna. (Of 
this pair), the male is Brahmft (called also) 
Dh4t4, Vidhi, Viriflcha; the woman 
is called Sri, Padmft, Kami ft, Lakshmi. 
From a part of Samkarshana, was mentally^ 
produced by Mah&m&y^, a pair, three-eyed, 
beautiful in all limbs; the male was Rudra, 
$ahkara, SthAnu, Kapardi, three-eyed, 
and (the woman) Trayt, Isvarft, Bh^shd, 
Vidyd, Aksharft, KAmadhenu, the (hea- 
venly) Cow, Sarasvatt. From a part of 
Aniruddha was mentally produced by M a h d- 
V i d y A, a pair ; the male thereof was K e 8 a v a, 
VishQU, Kfish^a, Hfishtkesa, Vftsu- 
deva, Jan^rdana, the woman being M a h a- 
gaurt, Satl. ChandrA, Subhagft; by my 
command T r a y t became B r a h m & 's wife, 
Gaurt, Rudra's wife, and the (lotus-borin) 
L a k sh m t, of V ft s u d e V a" {lb v, 2-23). B r a )i\- 
mft then created the cosmic egg; it was broken 
in two by R u d r a and V t s h n u protects all that 
is within the egg. 

The supreme manifests himself in three forms, 
called Para, VyAha and V i b h a v a ; of these, 
the Para (supreme) form is the one described at 
the beginning of this section. The V y fi h a com- 
prises the four forms ofVftsudeva, Samkar- 
shana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha', 

( 301 ) 

whose shapes, ornameots etc. are described in de^ 
tail in chapter ten of this work. They manifest 
themselves in each of the four states of J & g r a t a» 
Svapna, Sushupti and T u r 1 y a (waking, 
dreaming and sleep and trance. ) * 

The V i b h a V a constitutes the various forms in 
which Vishnu manifests himself to man, e. g.y 
Padmnftbha, Ananta, Kapila, the horse- 
faced Hayagrtvlsi, the various avatftras, 
the tortoise, etc., Da*ttfttreya and so on. f 

From the complicated pantheon of the A g a - 
m a s , the Vedic deities, I n d r a and A g n i, M i t- 
ra and Varu^a, V&yu and SAryaandthe 
ancient Dyftv&prithvt, the lovely U s h a s and 
the intoxicating King Soma have been entirely ex- 
cluded ; yet the modern Hindu devoutly believes 

• The Md^^ikya upaniihad with its classificatioa of 
spheres into four is so thorougbgoingly advaita in spirit 
that it presents a standing difficulty to VisishtAdvaita 
commentators. Ranga R&mAnuja identifies Visva, Taija- 
sa, Is vara and Atmft referred to there with the four 
Vyiihas of the Vaishnava Agamas, but the 
representation of these v y A h a s ad being present in each 
state of the mind (waking, eta.^ in the Lakshmf (antra y 
knocks the bottom out of Banga B&m&nnja's argument. 

f Besides Para, Vyiiha and Vibhava forms, 
other Vaishnava works add two other forms, a n t a r y &- 
m i, the all pervasive form (taken from the an tary&mi- 
brahman a, Brih UpJ)) and the arc ha, the forms of 
temple idols. 

( 302 ) 

his religion to be Vedxc and passionately maintains 
it to be the San^tana Dharma, tbeetemal, 
never- changing religion ; because the Vedas are 
worshipped but not read by him. Whence these 
Aga ma deities arose, when the complicated scheme 
of A g a m a divinities was elaborated, what deter- 
mined the character of their evolution is wrapped 
in that scarcely penetrable veil of obscurity which 
shrouds most Indian History. 

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